TestQuestionsForAllFourSections

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About the test questions

For this class I give four tests. What follows is a collection of all the questions I have given as test questions for the academic years 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. Some of them are simple restatements of other questions but many of them approach the same material from different “sides.” Many of the questions refer to images that have been included. The convolution calculation questions are presented here as images but they were created as single-slide powerpoint presentations. In this way the students could use the mask as a “manipulative” and slide it over the original image to help keep the math in proper order. If you would like these powerpoint slides, drop me an email at digitalMediaAtGGC@gmail.com and I’ll send them your way.

All questions for each test are listed under the section (or sections) of the text in which their answers are found. I have published all of the tests that I have given since 2007 to the college’s wiki the day after each test is given. I do not, however, publish the answers. I encourage my students to use these previously published tests as a study guide and bring any questions they have to the class before the test is given. Those that take advantage of these previous tests are the ones that do well in this class.




Test 1

Sound and Sampling

Phenomenon in the real world can be described as having two different modalities. In addition to discrete phenomena what is the other modality?

You have taken over a research project after the retirement of a colleague. One of the things you inherited is a library of audio files that were sampled at 15,500 samples per second with a 1 byte sample size. Your new research involves identifying sounds made by elephants that are under 20 cycles per second. Why can you expect to be able to use these files?

You have taken over a research project after the retirement of a colleague. One of the things you inherited is a library of audio files that were sampled at 15,500 samples per second. Each sample is 1 byte. Your new research requires that you work with sounds that can be only heard by dogs in the range of 30,000 cycles per second. Why can’t you use these files?

Is the height of an ocean wave an example of a discrete or continuous real world phenomenon?

Phenomenon in the real world can be described as having two different modalities, discrete and continuous. How do you convert continuous phenomena to numbers?

You have taken over a research project after the retirement of a colleague. One of the things you inherited is a library of audio files that were sampled at 8,000 samples per second with a 2 byte sample size. Your new research involves identifying sounds made by elephants that are under 20 cycles per second. Why can you expect to be able to use these files?

Phenomenon in the real world can be described as having two different modalities. Discrete phenomena are easy to convert to digital because you can simply count them. Continuous phenomenon are a bit more complicated because you can’t simply count them, instead you must convert them. What is this conversion process called?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 22050 samples per second. Each sample is 16 bits and there are two tracks because it is stereo. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you recorded in stereo for 27 seconds?

You have taken over a research project after the retirement of a colleague. One of the things you inherited is a library of audio files that were sampled at 15,500 samples per second with a 1 byte sample size. Your new research involves manipulating sounds that dogs but not humans can hear in the range of 28,000 cycles per second. Why can’t you use these files even though you know that sounds of that frequency were being made during the recorded performance?

You have taken over a research project after the retirement of a colleague. One of the things you inherited is a library of audio files that were sampled at 15,500 samples per second with a 1 byte sample size. Your new research involves manipulating sounds that are in the range of 5,000 cycles per second. Why can you use these files for your new research?

Most bound books are intended to be read from front to back in a linear manner. A dictionary on the other hand is a bound book that is not intended to be read from front to back. Name another.

Give one advantage that the hyperlinked document has over BOTH a scroll and a bound book.

Phenomenon in the real world can be described as having two different modalities. Discrete phenomena are easy to convert to digital because you can simply count them. Continuous phenomenon are a bit more complicated because you can’t simply count them, instead you must convert them by doing what?

It's all just bits!

We opened an image file with HexFiend and discovered that in addition to the pixels that make up the image there is additional information meant to be read and used by the software. What is this extra information called?

The scroll. the book, the webpage; Differing affordances Changing from reading scrolls to reading bound books required that the user know how to use the new technology (as seen in the short video shown in class). Name one new thing that the Monk needed to know in order to use the new technology known as a book.

Name a disadvantage of an electronic pdf version of a book that is not a disadvantage in the bound, paper version of that same book.

Most bound books are intended to be read from front to back in a linear manner. Name one bound book that is not intended to be read from front to back in a linear manner.

Name an advantage of an electronic pdf version of a book that is not found in the bound, paper version of that same book.

Phenomenon in the real world can be described as having two different modalities, discrete and continuous. How do you convert discrete phenomena to numbers?

Name an affordance found in the electronic pdf version of a book that is not found in the bound, paper version of that same book.

Are the number of ants in an anthill an example of a discrete or continuous real world phenomenon?

Give one advantage that BOTH a scroll and a bound book have over a hyperlinked document.

Counting like an alien

A 16 bit quantization level can encode 65,536 different levels. How many bits are needed to have half that many different levels?

In binary, what does 101 + 1 = ?

How many different things can be counted using 3 decimal digits?

In binary, what does 10 + 1 = ?

In binary, what does 111 + 1 = ?

When counting in hexadecimal, what comes after F0?

How many different things can be counted using 6 hexadecimal digits?

When counting in hexadecimal, what comes after BF?

How many different things can be counted using 3 hexadecimal digits?

For a gray linear gradient to be able to have 512 different shades of gray what is the minimum number of bits that would be required to encode it?

A 16 bit quantization level can encode 65,536 different levels. You decide that 32,768 levels will achieve the quality you want. How many bits will be required?

For a gray linear gradient to be able to have 36 different shades of gray what is the minimum number of bits that would be required to encode it?

When counting in hexadecimal, what comes after F9?

When counting in hexadecimal, what comes after F90?

How many bits are there in a file that has a 4MB file size?

A 14 bit quantization level can encode 16,384 different levels. How many bits are required to encode half that many?

If I give you the number 10110 can you tell me for certain if it is binary, decimal or hexadecimal?

In binary, what does 100 + 1 = ?

An 8 bit gray linear gradient can display how many different shades of gray?

How many different things can be counted using 7 decimal digits?

How many different things can be counted using 4 hexadecimal digits?

In binary, what does 11 + 1 = ?

How many different things can be counted using 7 binary digits?

How many different things can be counted using 7 hexadecimal digits?

A 16 bit quantization level can encode 65,536 different levels. How many bits are required to encode twice that many?

A 10 bit quantization level can encode how many different levels?

In binary, what does 1011 + 1 = ?

For a gray linear gradient to be able to have 256 different shades of gray what is the minimum number of bits that would be required to encode it?

When counting in hexadecimal, what comes after BE?

Given the number 10110011, can you tell me if this is a hexadecimal, binary or a decimal number?

When counting in hexadecimal, what comes after FF?

A 16 bit quantization level can encode 65,536 different levels. You decide that 16,384 levels will achieve the quality you want. How many bits will be required?

When counting in hexadecimal, what comes after A9?

File Size and Download/Upload Speed Calculations

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 10,000 samples per second. Each one of these samples is two bytes in length and it is a stereo recording. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you record for 33 seconds?

Using ADSL with upload speeds of 640,000 bps how long should it take you to upload your stereo audio file to your wiki site if the sample size is one byte, the sample rate is 22,050 samples per second and the audio plays for 1 minute and 10 seconds?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 44,100 samples per second. Each sample is 4 bits and there are two tracks because it is stereo. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you recorded in stereo for 30 seconds?

Unfortunately, the letter b (or B) has two meanings when used in an abbreviation in this class, either bit or byte. When dealing with transmission speeds, like kbps, which is it?

You have an audio file that is (not counting the header and other administrative overhead) 24MB in length. You know it is stereo, was sampled at 16,000 samples per second and the quantization level is 16 bits. When opened with quicktime how long should this audio file play?

How many bits are there in a file that has a 8MB file size?

How many bits are there in a file that has a 7MB file size?

How many BYTES are there in a file that has a 10MB file?

Using ADSL with upload speeds of 640,000 bps how long will it take you to upload your audio file to your wiki site if the sample size is one byte, the sample rate is 44,100 samples per second and the audio plays for 2 minutes and 15 seconds?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 22050 samples per second. Each sample is 8 bits and there are two tracks because it is stereo. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you recorded in stereo for 37 seconds?

You have an audio file that is (not counting the header and other administrative overhead) 24MB in length. You know it is stereo, was sampled at 44,100 samples per second and the quantization level is 16 bits. When opened with quicktime how long should this audio file play?

You have an audio file that is (not counting the header and other administrative overhead) 11MB in length. You know it is stereo, was sampled at 22,050 samples per second and the quantization level is 16 bits. When opened with quicktime how long should this audio file play?

Using ADSL with download speeds of 6.1 mbps how long will it take you to download a stereo audio file to your wiki site if the sample size is one byte, the sample rate is 44,100 samples per second and the audio plays for 55 seconds?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 22050 samples per second. Each sample is 16 bits and it is NOT in stereo. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you recorded in stereo for 27 seconds?

You have taken over a research project after the retirement of a colleague. One of the things you inherited is a library of audio files that were sampled at 8,000 samples per second with a 1 byte sample size. Your new research involves identifying sounds made by elephants that are under 20 cycles per second. WHY can you expect to be able to use these files?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 22,050 samples per second. Each one of these samples is two bytes in length. It is not a stereo recording. This file plays for 45 seconds. What is the highest frequency sound this file could faithfully reproduce?

You have an audio file that is (not counting the header and other administrative overhead) 7MB in length. You know it is stereo, was sampled at 44,100 samples per second and the quantization level is 8 bits. When opened with quicktime how long should this audio file play?

Using ADSL with upload speeds of 640 kbps how long will it take you to upload a stereo audio file to your wiki site if the sample size is two bytes, the sample rate is 22,050 samples per second and the audio plays for 1 minutes and 5 seconds?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 22,050 samples per second. Each sample is 4 bits and there is only one track. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you recorded in stereo for 35 seconds?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 8,000 samples per second. Each one of these samples is two bytes in length. It is a stereo recording. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you record for 1 minute 10 seconds?

Using ADSL with upload speeds of 640,000 bps how long will it take you to upload your audio file to your wiki site if the sample size is two bytes, the sample rate is 44,100 samples per second and the audio plays for 15 seconds?

How many bits are there in a file that has a 11MB file size?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 22050 samples per second. Each sample is 4 bits and there is only one track because it is not stereo. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you recorded in stereo for 30 seconds?

You have an audio file that is (not counting the header and other administrative overhead) 15MB in length. You know it is stereo, was sampled at 44,100 samples per second and the quantization level is 16 bits. When opened with quicktime how long should this audio file play?

Using ADSL with upload speeds of 640,000 bps how long will it take you to upload your audio file to your wiki site if the sample size is two bytes, the sample rate is 22,050 samples per second and the audio plays for 10 seconds?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 22,050 samples per second. Each sample is 4 bits and there are two tracks because it is stereo. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you recorded in stereo for 20 seconds?

You have an audio file that is (not counting the header and other administrative overhead) 10MB in length. You know it is stereo, was sampled at 44,100 samples per second and the quantization level is 8 bits. When opened with quicktime how long should this audio file play?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 8,000 samples per second. Each one of these samples is two bytes in length. It is not a stereo recording. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you record for 47 seconds?

You have an audio recording that is sampled at 8,000 samples per second. Each one of these samples is two bytes in length. It is not a stereo recording. How many bytes of data would you have captured if you record in stereo for 47 seconds?

Introduction to images

Ways to store an image as numbers: Bitmapped Graphics Ways to store an image as numbers: Vector Graphics Image encoding techniques: Bitmapped Images BItmapped images: JPEG compression and human vision BItmapped images: Dithering and Posterization Integer screen coordinates and bounding boxes Image encoding: Messing around with the color coding Art and Mathematics Collide! (of Bezier Curves and Convolution) What is one thing that affects the filesize of a vector graphic?

Which type of image, either bitmapped or vector graphic, has problems scaling?

Name one lossless compression technique that we mentioned in class.

Name one thing that affects the filesize of a vector graphic.

JPG is lossy compression technique. What does lossy mean in this context?

ZIP is a lossless compression technique. What does lossless mean in this context?

Name one lossy compression technique that we mentioned in class.

Name one lossless compression technique.

Important people who shaped computing as we know it

The invention of the desktop metaphor was responsible for the proliferation of the personal computer as we know them today. Who’s team at XEROX PARC was responsible for developing the desktop metaphor?

Who not only said “The best way to predict the future is to invent it” but also proved it by inventing the future of personal computing?

Networking Issues

T3 is a symmetric data connection. What does this mean?

Given this URL: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/premiumPump.html what is the file name of the file will the server return to your browser?

Given this URL: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/budgetPump.html what is the file name of the file will the server return to your browser?

Given this URL: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/premiumPump.html what is the file name of the file that the server will return to your browser?

What is meant by a data connection that is symmetric?

ADSL is an asymmetric data connection. What does this mean?

Given this URL: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/budgetPump.html what is the domain name?

What part of the internet is responsible for converting the domain name (like www.pondliner.com) to the IP address (the number) of the server?

At home, your connection to the Internet will most likely be made using DHCP. What does the use of DHCP mean in terms of the IP address?

T3 is a symmetric data connection. What does symmetric mean in this context?

Given this URL: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/premiumPump.html what is the domain name?

Given this URL: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/ in a traditional html based website, what is the NAME of the page that will be retrieved from the server?

A dialup connection is an asymmetric data connection. What does asymmetric mean in this context?.

Given this URL: http://www.pondliner.com in a traditional html based website, what is the NAME of the page that will be retrieved from the server?


Test 2

Introduction to images 
 Ways to store an image as numbers: Intro to Bitmapped Graphics 
 Ways to store an image as numbers: Intro to Vector Graphics 
 Image encoding techniques: Bitmapped Images 
 BItmapped images: JPEG compression and human vision 
 BItmapped images: Dithering and Posterization 
 Integer screen coordinates and bounding boxes 
 Image encoding: Messing around with the color coding 
 Art and Mathematics Collide! (of Bezier Curves and Convolution) A given vector is defined by the two points, (2.2, -0.6) and (-4.2, 2). What is the displacement of this vector?

A given vector is defined by the two points, (2.2, 1.6) and (3.2, 2). What is the displacement of this vector?

A given vector is defined by the two points, (1.1, -1.5) and (2.8, 3.0). What is the displacement of this vector?

A given vector is defined by the two points, (2.2, 0.6) and (4.2, 2). What is the displacement of this vector?

A given vector is defined by the two points, (2.0, 0.6) and (-1.0, 2). What is the displacement of this vector?

A given vector is defined by the two points, (1.0, 2.5) and (1.2, 3.5). What is the displacement of this vector?

A given vector is defined by the two points, (2.2, 0.6) and (4.2, 2). What is the displacement of this vector?

A given vector is defined by the two points, (1.0, 2.5) and (1.2, 3.5). What is the displacement of this vector?

A vector is defined by two characteristics. What are they?

A vector is defined by two characteristics. One is length, the other is what?

Convolution calculation practice.
Each image below has 4 parts. There is a black and white image in the upper left hand corner, the numbers that underlie that image in the upper right hand corner (actually there world be 3 numbers per pixel but this is black/white/gray so red = blue = green) , the convolution mask in the lower left hand corner and a matrix to contain the results. Calculate the 3 pixels marked X1, X2, and X3 on the resulting image matrix.


















Is convolution an example of pixel point processing or pixel group processing?

If the operating system knows the application window is at the absolute location (100,200) and the application knows that the bounding box for an animated character is at the relative location (50,100), what is the absolute location of the bounding box?

JPEG compression uses the fact that humans don’t see high frequency changes as well as low frequency changes. What does JPEG do with this information to reduce the size of the file?

Displaying a vector graphic on a computer display like the ones we have in the lab is accomplished by converting the vector graphic to a bitmapped graphic. Invariably the result will be a jagged line rather than a smooth one. To make this jagged line look more smooth what can be done?

Under what conditions is a table encoded image a lossy compression technique?

4x4-4colorRLEimage.tiff (found in the section2Images folder) is a (4 X 4 pixel) image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are shown below the image. Allowing one byte for the “count” portion of the encoding, write out the string of bytes that would result from a run length encoding of that image.


4x4-6colorTableEncodingImage.tiff (found in the section2Images folder) is a (4 X 4) pixel image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are shown below the image.

Write out the bitmapped portion of a table encoding of this image using the minimum number of bits needed to encode these 6 colors.

Referring to the question above, how many bytes in length would this file be if you include both the color table and the bitmap but ignoring the header?

4x4-5color24BitRGB-Image.tiff is a small (4 X 4) pixel image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are shown below the image. If this were to be stored as an uncompressed, 24 bit RGB image, how many bytes would it be in length? 4x3-4colorRLEimage.jpg is a small (4 X 3 pixel) image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are shown below the image. Allowing one byte for the “count” portion of the encoding, write out the string of bytes that would result from a run length encoding of that image.

4x3-6colorTableEncodingImage.jpg is a small (4 X 3) pixel image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are shown below the image.

Write out the bitmapped portion of a table encoding of this image using the minimum number of bits needed to encode these 6 colors.

Referring to the question above, how many bytes in length would this file be if you include both the color table and the bitmap but ignoring the header?

4x3-6colorUncompressed24bitRGB.jpg is a small (4 X 3) pixel image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are shown below the image. If this were to be stored as an uncompressed, 24 bit RGB image, how many bytes would it be in length?

Is run length encoding a lossy or lossless compression technique?

Under what circumstances is a table encoded image lossy?

Under what circumstances is a table encoded image lossless?

Of bitmapped images and vector graphic images which gives access to the objects in the image by the simple nature of the way the image is stored?

Which type of image, bitmapped or vector graphic, is affected by the complexity of the image?


encodingImage.jpg is a small (4 X 3 pixel) image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are as follows:

Cyan: 120, 248, 254 Orange: 237, 132, 30 White: 255, 255, 255 Red: 232, 68, 21 Blue: 0, 59, 250

Allowing one byte for the “count” portion of the encoding, write out the string of bytes that would result from a run length encoding of that image.

encodingImage.jpg is a small (4 X 3 pixel) image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are as follows:

Cyan: 120, 248, 254 Orange: 237, 132, 30 White: 255, 255, 255 Red: 232, 68, 21 Blue: 0, 59, 250

Write out the bitmapped portion of a table encoding of this image using the minimum number of bits needed to encode these 5 colors.

Referring to the question above, how many bytes in length would this file be if you include both the color table and the bitmap ignoring the header?

encodingImage.jpg is a small (4 X 3 pixel) image. If this were to be stored as an uncompressed, 16 bit RGB image, how many bytes would it be in length?

imageEncoding#2.ppt is a 3 X 4 pixel image. The 6 24-bit RGB color codes are shown to the right of the image. Write out the string of bytes that would result from a run length encoding of that image.

imageEncoding#3.ppt is a 4 X 3 pixel image. The 6 24-bit RGB color codes are shown to the right of the image. Write out the 3 X 4 bitmapped portion of a table encoding of that image.

imageEncoding#3.ppt is a 4 X 3 pixel image. The 6 24-bit RGB color codes are shown to the right of the image. What would be the file length of this file excluding the header?

imageEncoding#1.ppt is a 3 X 4 pixel image. The 6 24-bit RGB color codes are shown to the right of the image. Excluding the header how many bytes long would this uncompressed file be?

encodingImage1: is a small (3 X 4 pixel) image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are as follows: orange 237, 132, 30 white 255,255,255 blue 0, 59, 250 cyan 120, 248, 254

Allowing one byte for the “count” portion of the encoding, write out the string of bytes that would result from a run length encoding of that image.

encodingImage2: is a 5 X 5 pixel image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are as follows: orange 237, 132, 30 white 255,255,255 red 255, 0, 0 cyan 120, 248, 254 green 67, 139, 23 blue 0, 59, 250

Referring to the image above, how many bytes in length would this file be if you include both the color table and the bitmap ignoring the header?

Again, in encodingImage3: we have an image that measures 3 pixels by 4 pixels. If this were to be stored as an uncompressed, 24 bit RGB image, how many bytes would it be in length?


Which type of image, bitmapped or vector graphic, is not affected by the complexity of the image?

Displaying a vector graphic on a computer display like the ones we have in the lab is accomplished by converting the vector graphic to a bitmapped graphic. Invariably the result will be a jagged line rather than a smooth one. What is this jagged line called?

With 16 bit RGB green gets 6 bits while red and blue gets only 5 bits. That extra bit gives green how many additional shades than red and blue have?

In 16 bit RGB red and blue get 5 bits but green gets one additional bit. Why?

What is the process called that allows you to use only black ink but produce 5 different shades of grey from white to black?

What is one of the artifacts that frequently rises from the use of nearest color when a color in an image does not occur in the color table.

What is one form of optical mixing that sacrifices resolution at the altar of color accuracy?

What is the process called that allows you to produce 5 different shades of grey from black ink on white paper?

With 16 bit RGB which color gets a 6th bit?

If the operating system knows the application window is at the absolute location (150,200) and the application knows that the bounding box for an animated character is at the relative location (50,150), what is the absolute location of the bounding box?

Displaying a vector graphic on a computer display like the ones we have in the lab is accomplished by converting the vector graphic to a bitmapped graphic. Invariably the result will be a jagged line rather than a smooth one. What term is applied to this jagged line?

Displaying a vector graphic on a computer display like the ones we have in the lab is accomplished by converting the vector graphic to a bitmapped graphic. Invariably the result will be a jagged line rather than a smooth one. What term is used to refer to this jagged line?

Displaying a vector graphic on a computer display like the ones we have in the lab is accomplished by converting the vector graphic to a bitmapped graphic. Invariably the result will be a jagged line rather than a smooth one. What technique is used to make this jagged line look smoother?

You have an image that you want to encode as a table encoded image but you want it to be limited to 256 different colors. The image has 500 different colors. What can you do to solve this dilemma?

What is it about human vision that JPEG image compression takes advantage of in order to compress a file?


What is color anyway? 
How do we model color? 
Color Theory What is it about the human eye that the tri-stimulus model is derived from?

Cyan is what you get when you mix what colors of light?

Yellow is what you get when you mix what colors of light?

Holding a ball painted with pure green paint you enter a room that is lit with cyan colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Holding a ball painted with white paint you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of red, blue and green light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Mixing red and green light results in what color?

Holding a ball painted with green paint you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of red and blue colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Holding a ball that is painted black, you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of red and blue colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Red is what you get when you remove what color (or colors) from white?

What color would result if the 24 bit RGB color codes are (180, 180, 180)?

Holding a ball that is painted white, you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of red and blue colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Yellow is what you get when you remove what color or colors from white?

Holding a ball painted with pure blue paint you enter a room that is lit with cyan colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Holding a ball painted with white paint you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of blue and green light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Mixing red and blue light results in what color?

Holding a ball that is painted white, you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of red, green and blue colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Holding a ball that is painted white, you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of red and green colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Holding a ball that is painted white, you enter a room that is lit with red light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Holding a ball that is painted blue, you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of red and blue colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Cyan is what you get when you remove what color or colors from white?

Holding a ball painted with pure blue paint you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of red and green colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Holding a ball painted with white paint you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of blue and red light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

Counting like an alien How many different colors can 24 bit color produce?

How many different colors can 16 bit color produce?

How many different color combinations are possible with 16 bit RGB?

How many different colors can 16 bit RGB produce?

24 bit color can produce 16,777,216 different colors. How many bits would you need to have only 262,144 colors?

Animation: The rise of computers What kind of model building technique does Blender use?

What Boolean operation would change the objects seen in image 2- to image 3-?

What Boolean operation would change the objects seen in image 2- to those seen in both images 4- and 5-?

Which image shows the resulting difference when subtracting the blue sphere from the green sphere?

Which image shows the resulting difference when subtracting the green sphere from the blue sphere?

Of the objects seen in image2.tiff as a wireframe, which ones(s) would be the result of taking the Boolean operation intersection of those objects?

Of the objects seen in image2.tiff as a wireframe, which one(s) would be the result of taking the Boolean operation union of those objects?

If you start with the object seen in image2.tiff as a wireframe, which Boolean operation would result in the object seen in image4.tiff?

If you start with the object seen in image2.tiff as a wireframe, which Boolean operation would result in the object seen in image9.tiff?

Which image shows definitively the union of the cube and cylinder?

Which image shows the intersection of the two objects?

Which image shows the difference of the cube and the cylinder?

Which image shows the difference of the cylinder and the cube?

Given the two objects seen in wireframeImage1:, which of wireframeImage2: through wireframeImage5: would be best described as the difference of the sphere and the cone?

Given the two objects seen in wireframeImage1:, which of wireframeImage2: through wireframeImage5: would be best described as the intersection of the cone and the sphere?

Given the two objects seen in wireframeImage1:, which of wireframeImage2: through wireframeImage5: would be best described as the union of the cone and the sphere?

Given the two objects seen in wireframeImage1:, which of wireframeImage2: through wireframeImage5: would be best described as the difference of the cone and the sphere?

Of the objects in image2.tiff through image9.tiff which ones(s) would be the result of taking the Boolean operation intersection?

Of the objects in image2.tiff through image9.tiff which one(s) would be the result of taking the Boolean operation union?

If you start with the objects seen in image2.tiff, which Boolean operation would result in the object seen in image4.tiff?

If you start with the objects seen in image2.tiff, which Boolean operation would result in the object seen in image9.tiff?


Test 3

Moving images: Animation 
 Animation: Start with some shameless self-promotion! 
 Animation: From oddity to art form to TV 
 Animation: The rise of computers 
 Animation: Motion Capture and Animated Films 
 Augmented Reality: Adding Animation to the "Real World" 
 Is it real? Does it matter?

The image named image5.jpg could be best described as an example of what computer based technique?

If an animator wants to make his 3D model move like a human what technique would be his best choice?

When generating the frames that fall between the key frames in an animation sequence, which form of interpolation would more accurately show the motion of an object under the affect of gravity?

Which two animation techniques do not require the animator to create shadows individually, frame by frame?

In 1937 Walt Disney brought Snow White to the screen using what form of animation?

If an animator decides to use 2D computer animation techniques rather than 3D animation techniques, give one thing that they would have to produce, frame by frame, that would be automatically produced had they chosen 3D.

The image named image5.jpg in the section3Images folder could be best described as an example of what computer based technique?

The image named image6.jpg in the section3Images folder could be best described as an example of what computer based technique?

In the 1960’s Terry Gilliam of Monty Python’s Flying Circus fame introduced the TV audience to what form of animation?

If an animator decides to use 3D computer animation techniques rather than 2D animation techniques what two additional thing(s) will he have to control?

Looking at the images (and one video) in test3Images which one(s) could be described as showing an augmented reality setup?

Looking at the images (and one video) in test3Images which one(s) could be described as showing a motion capture setup?

Looking at the images (and one video) in test3Images which one(s) could be described as showing a virtual reality setup?

What type of animation technique was used to create both Gumby and Wallace and Gromit?

What form of animation was used to create the South Park?

Why might the creators of South Park have chosen cut out animation over the other forms we discussed in class?

When using 3D animation techniques the camera and the lighting is something that must be managed by the animator. Though this requires additional effort on the part of the animator what does the animator get without any additional effort as a result?

When generating the frames that fall between the key frames in an animation sequence, which form of interpolation would more accurately show the motion of an object that is NOT under an accelerating force like gravity?

If you start with the objects seen in Img1A.jpg (and Wireframe1A.jpg) which Boolean operation would result in the object seen in Wireframe1B.jpg?

If you start with the objects seen in Img1A.jpg (and Wireframe1A.jpg) which Boolean operation would result in the object seen in Wireframe3.jpg?

If you start with the objects seen in Img1A.jpg and Wireframe1A.jpg which Boolean operation would result in the object seen in Wireframe4.jpg?

Using the objects in image2.tiff and image3.tiff which one(s) of the images image4.tiff through image9.tiff would be the result of taking the Boolean operation intersection?

Using the objects in image2.tiff and image3.tiff which one(s) of the images image4.tiff through image9.tiff would be the result of taking the Boolean operation union?

Using the objects in image2.tiff and image3.tiff which Boolean operation would result in the object seen in image4.tiff?

Using the objects in image2.tiff and image3.tiff which Boolean operation would result in the object seen in image7.tiff & image8.tiff?

What kind of model building technique does Blender use?

The image: jrowanFall2011image2.jpg is an example of what kind of filming technique?

The computer is generating the entire scene in the image: jrowanFall2011image4.jpg. This is a good example of what type of computer technique?

If an animator decides to use 3D computer animation techniques rather than 2D animation techniques, what additional thing(s) would they have to manage?

Describe what the “cel” in the term “cel animation” is.

What animation technique involves painting different picture elements on clear sheets of plastic, stacking them and then taking a photograph?

What animation technique was used to create Gumby and Wallace and Gromit?

3D computer-based animation techniques automatically create shadows but they require the animator to control what two additional 3D modeling elements?

Which two animation techniques require that you draw the shading and shadows on every frame?

Which animation technique readily lends itself to addressing current events because it takes the least amount of time to produce?

image2.jpg shows an actor playing the part of an animated character in the movie Avatar. What name is given to this kind of technology?

Tweeners use interpolation to fill in the frames between key frames. Which of the two kinds of interpolation mentioned in class would be used to fill in the frames so that the moving objects move at a constant speed between key frames?

image4.jpg shows a new kind of greeting card that requires the card, a webcam and some special software to view. What kind of computer graphics technique is this card using?

What animation technique was used to create The Fabulous Mr. Fox and Wallace and Gromit?

Which two animation techniques require that you control the lighting and the camera?

Which animation technique lends itself to addressing current events because it takes the least amount of time to produce?

image3.jpg shows an actor playing The Hulk on a set. What name is given to this kind of technology?

Tweeners use interpolation to fill in the frames between key frames. Which kind of interpolation would best represent a ball falling under the influence of gravity?


Moving Images: Film 
Moving Images: TV 
Moving Images: Video Digital TV recently replaced Analog broadcast TV. Give one reason for this change.

Tell me something relevant about the fusion rate for humans.

Video images can be interlaced or progressive scan. Which one can result in the artifact seen in image1.jpg? 
What are the specific circumstances under which the comb effect can occur?

Looking at image2.jpg and image3.jpg, which one is clearly an example of interlaced scan?

What is an analog connection’s biggest disadvantage over a digital connection?

One approach to reducing the size of the video data stream is to save the color information less frequently than the illumination information. What is this technique called?

Describe the basic problem encountered when converting motion picture film to video using any of the Telecine processes?

One category of video compression compresses each captured frame as a completely specified image. What is this kind of compression called?

Which of the two categories of video compression in its simplest form calculates frame differences and in its more complex form does vectoring?

Looking at image4.jpg the frame capture sequence is shown for the three different forms of mpeg video compression. In the third, most complex compression technique, what frame(s) are needed before frame 5 can be reconstructed?

Looking at image4.jpg which technique(s) use(s) image differencing alone?

Looking at image4.jpg which technique uses spatial compression alone?

What is the difference between an asymmetric codec and a symmetric codec?

The choice of the codec used to compress and decompress a video affects that video in a number of different ways. Give one of these other than video quality.

What can affect this fusion rate?

Looking at image2.jpg and image3.jpg in the section3Images folder which one is clearly an example of progressive scan?

Looking at image4.jpg in the section3Images folder the frame capture sequence is shown for the three different forms of mpeg video compression. In the third, most complex compression technique, what frame(s) are needed before frame 8 can be reconstructed?

The fusion rate for humans is around 40 frames per second. What does this mean?

What affects this fusion rate making it either larger or smaller?

Looking at the images in test3Images which one(s) could be described as showing a video captured with interlaced scanning?

Looking at the images in test3Images which one(s) could be described as showing a video captured with progressive scanning?

Video1.mov shows an artifact that arises from one of the two scan techniques we talked about in class. What is the name given to this artifact?

One approach to reducing the size of the video data stream is to perform chrominance (or chroma) sub-sampling. Describe how chrominance subsampling reduces the video data stream.

Which category of video compression takes advantage of the fact that from frame to frame a video may not change all that much?

Which of the two categories of video compression compresses each video frame as a completely specified image?

Looking at image7.jpg the frame capture sequence is shown for the three different forms of mpeg video compression. In the third, most complex compression technique, what frame(s) are needed before frame 3 can be reconstructed?

When generating the frames that fall between the key frames in an animation sequence which form of interpolation would more accurately show the motion of an object under the affect of gravity?

You have a vacation video and a security video that were both shot with the same camera and both contain 10,000 uncompressed frames. Which would result in a smaller file when compressed spatially?

You have a vacation video and a security video that were both shot with the same camera and both contain 10,000 uncompressed frames. Which would result in a smaller file when compressed temporally?

What is the name of the artifact seen in image1.jpg?

What is an analog data connection’s biggest disadvantage over a digital data connection?

One category of video compression compresses each captured frame as a completely specified image without regard to the frames that came before or after it. What is this kind of compression called?

Looking at image4.jpg which technique does not use image differencing?

Looking at image4.jpg which technique uses only forward image differencing for compression?

Which category of video compression does take advantage of the fact that from frame to frame a video may not change all that much?

Which category of video compression does not take advantage of the fact that from frame to frame a video may not change all that much?

What scan technique is one of the causes of the artifact seen in: jrowanFall2011image1.jpg?

What scan technique that would not cause the artifact seen in: jrowanFall2011image1.jpg?

What, in addition to the scan technique, is needed to cause the artifact seen in: jrowanFall2011image1.jpg?

Digital broadcast TV recently replaced Analog broadcast TV. Which one gracefully degrades with distance from the broadcast station?

What is the fusion rate for humans?

One approach to reducing the size of the video data stream is to use chrominance sub-sampling. Describe chrominance subsampling.

Looking at jrowanFall2011image5.jpg which technique results in the largest compressed file?

Looking at jrowanFall2011image5.jpg which technique results in the smallest compressed file?

Differencing and Vectoring are two forms of what category of video compression?

Looking at the Mpeg compression technique 3 seen in image1.jpg the frames are shown in frame capture sequence, frame 1 to frame 10 and it can be seen that the transmission sequence is different than the capture and the playback sequence. Which frame(or frames) are needed to reconstruct frame 3 during playback?

There are two techniques of image compression discussed in this class. Compressing each frame of a video as a completely specified image (like Mpeg compression technique 1 seen in image1.jpg) is what kind of video compression?

There are two techniques of image compression discussed in this class. A form of video compression that involves storing the difference of a key frame and subsequent frames (like Mpeg compression technique 2 seen in image1.jpg). What kind of compression is this? (the answer in this case is NOT differencing or vectoring which are two forms of this technique)

Which of the video compression techniques shown on image1.jpg would most likely result in the largest compressed video filesize?

You have two videos that are the same file size. One is a home video of a family vacation and the other is from your security system taken while you were away on that vacation. Both were filmed with the same kind of camera. Which of these two videos (vacation or security) would compress to the smallest file size if you use a temporal compression technique?

You have two videos that are the same file size. One is a home video of a family vacation and the other is from your security system taken while you were away on that vacation. Both were filmed with the same kind of camera. You compress these two videos using spatial compression. Will the vacation video be larger than the security video, the security larger than the vacation or will they be the same size?

image3.jpg shows a single frame from a video. One can plainly see that there is a problem with this frame. What is the name given to this kind of problem?

In fully immersive virtual reality the user’s view of the real world is blocked and replaced by two images, one for each eye. These two images are produced by a computer. Why two images, one for each eye?

Explain why converting film to video is problematic.

The fusion rate for humans is 40 frames per second. What does this mean?

This fusion rate can vary. What causes the fusion rate to vary?

Chrominance sub-sampling takes advantage of what human visual characteristic?

Video codecs are responsible for encoding and decoding images. Some of these codecs are symmetric, some are asymmetric. What does it mean if a codec is symmetric?

A new satellite TV provider needs to pick a codec to use with the service. Why would they choose an asymmetric codec rather than a symmetric codec?

In 2009 broadcast TV changed from analog to digital. What is one negative feature of digital broadcast TV over analog?

Compressing each frame of a video as completely specified image (like Mpeg compression technique 1 seen in image1.jpg) is what kind of video compression?

Another form of video compression involves storing the difference of a key frame and subsequent frames (like Mpeg compression technique 2 seen in image1.jpg), What kind of compression is this? (the answer in this case is NOT differencing)

Which of the video compression techniques shown on image1.jpg would most likely result in the smallest compressed video filesize?

Which of the video compression techniques shown on image1.jpg would require the most computer processing to reconstruct and then play?

image2.jpg shows a single frame from a video. Looking at the hand of the actor in the lower left corner one can see that there is a problem with this frame. What is this kind of problem called?

Converting film to video is problematic. Why?

In 2009 broadcast TV changed from analog to digital. What is one major advantage of digital broadcast TV over analog?

Looking at the Mpeg compression technique 3 seen in image1.jpg the frames are shown in frame capture sequence, frame 1 to frame 10. Which frame(s) are needed to reconstruct frame 2 during playback?

Looking at the Mpeg compression technique 3 seen in image1: the frames are shown in frame capture sequence, frame 1 to frame 10. Which frame(s) are needed to reconstruct frame 3 during playback?

Which of the video compression techniques shown on image1 would most likely result in the largest compressed video filesize?

The fusion rate for humans is 40 frames per second. What happens at this rate?


Test 4

Networking Issues

If you were to enter: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/superpump3.html into your browser and hit return, what is the NAME of the page that would be retrieved from that website?

Looking at the URL: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/superpump3.html what is the domain name that will be used by the DNS to look up the IP address of the server?

If you wanted to run a web server on your personal computer at home why is it not advisable to use DHCP to assign your IP address?

If you wanted to run a web server on your personal computer at home why would you NOT want to use DHCP?

If you were to enter: http://www.myDomainName.com/stuff1/stuff2/myNewStuff.html into your browser and hit return, what is the NAME of the page that would be retrieved from that website?

If you were to enter: http://www.myDomainName.com/stuff1/ into your browser and hit return, what is the NAME of the page that would be retrieved from that website?

Looking at the URL: http://www.myDomainName.com/stuff1/stuff2/ what is the domain name that will be used by the DNS to look up the IP address of the server?

If you were to enter: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/superpump3.html into your browser and hit return, what is the NAME of the page that would be retrieved from that website?

If you were to enter: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/onsale/ into your browser and hit return, what is the NAME of the page that would be retrieved from that website?

If you were to enter: http://www.pondliner.com into your browser and hit return, what is the NAME of the page that would be retrieved from that website?

Looking at the URL: http://www.pondliner.com/waterpumps/superpump3.html what is the domain name that will be used by the DNS to look up the IP address of the server?

If you were to enter: http://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/lesson1.html into your browser and hit return, what is the NAME of the page that would be retrieved from that website?

If you were to enter: http://www.ladyada.net into your browser and hit return, what is the NAME of the page that would be retrieved from that website?

If you were to enter: http://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/ into your browser and hit return, what is the NAME of the page that would be retrieved from that website?

Looking at the URL: http://www.ladyada.net/learn/arduino/lesson1.html what is the domain name that will be used by the DNS to look up the IP address of the server?

If you were to enter the URL: http://www.pondliner.com/product/algaefix/algefix1.html into your browser what is the NAME of the page that URL would retrieve?

The directory and file name make up the third part of a URL. What are the other two parts?

Audio: Voice, Music & Environment

There are a number of ways to display audio. The two that we have discussed in class are image1.jpg and image2.jpg. Which version tells you absolutely nothing about the individual frequencies found in the sound?

Image5.jpg is what the audio signal might look like after image1.jpg is filtered using what kind of filter?

What kind of filter removes low frequency components of an audio signal leaving the high frequencies?

Image4.jpg is what the audio signal might look like after image1.jpg is filtered using what kind of filter?

You are an alien who has just recently landed on planet earth. All your human friends have stereos but you don’t understand why they need two speakers to experience their music when all his alien buddies back home have music but they only need one speaker since they can’t tell the difference between music played with one speaker and music played with two speakers. Why do you think this is the case (I can think of two reasons)?

Audio, like vision, has its own set of illusions. One of these involves a 200 cycle per second sound. If you start with a low volume and gradually increase the volume, what appears to happen to the sound?

One fairly common form of compression applied to human voice is called “companding”. In this scheme what is the difference between the way quiet sounds are captured and the way loud sounds are captured?

Humans are very well tuned to hearing their own names. In fact, they can hear their names spoken in a conversation across the room when they would not be able to follow the conversation. What is this ability called?

Audio, like vision, has its own set of illusions. DESCRIBE (don’t just name it) one of them that we discussed in class.

What kind of filter would you use to remove 60 cycle hum?

To remove the frequencies above 10,000 cycles per second from an audio track, what kind of filter would be best to use?

To remove the frequencies below 10,000 cycles per second from a audio track, what kind of filter would be best to use?

What kind of filter removes sound that falls below a specified amplitude (aka gain).

One fairly common form of compression applied to human voice is called “companding”. What does companding do to make an audio file smaller?

What two factors affect our ability to tell the directionality of a sound.

Which of the images in test4ImagesFall2011 would best represent the application of a notch filter to image1.jpg?

What kind of filter removes a narrow band of frequencies from an audio signal?

Which of the images in test4ImagesFall2011 would best represent the application of a low pass filter to image1.jpg?

Audio, like vision, has its own set of illusions. Describe one of them that we discussed in class.

Of gainFreq1:, gainFreq2: and gainFreq3: which would be the result of applying a high pass filter to gainFreq:?

Of gainFreq1:, gainFreq2: and gainFreq3: which would be the result of applying a notch filter to gainFreq:?

Looking at gainFreq5: what can you say about the amount of high frequency in this recording compared to the amount of low frequency?

Of gainFreq1:, gainFreq2: and gainFreq3: which would be the result of applying a low pass filter to gainFreq:?

What kind of filter would result in gainFreq6: when applied to gainFreq5:?

What two factors affect your ability to tell where sound comes from?

If you have a digital recording that was sampled with too few quantization levels, what can be added to it to improve it’s perceived quality?

What kind of filter removes low frequency components of an audio signal leaving the low frequencies?

What kind of filter would result in gainFreq1.png when applied to gainFreq.png?

Looking at gainFreq4.jpg what can you say about the amount of high frequency in this recording?

What kind of filter would result in gainFreq6.jpg when applied to gainFreq5.jpg?

What kind of filter would result in gainFreq7.jpg when applied to gainFreq5.jpg?

Important people who shaped computing as we know it

What did Alan Kay’s group at XEROX PARC invent that made today’s explosion of personal computers possible?

Who invented the wiki?

Tell me something (relevant to this class) about Tim Berners-Lee.

Who wrote the first web server?

Who wrote the programming language Alice?

Give one of Alan Kay’s quotes.

What about Alan Kay’s work at XEROX PARC was used it to change computing as we know it?

Tell me something (relevant to this class) about Randy Pausch.

Tell me something (relevant to this class) about Ward Cunningham. Who saw Alan Kay’s work at XEROX PARC and used it to change computing as we know it?

Who said “the best way to predict the future is to invent it”?

Who invented the desktop metaphor?

What is so special about a wiki compared to other websites?

What language is Randy Pausch most closely associated with?

What was it that Steven Jobs saw at XEROX PARC and later used to invent the Macintosh?

Who famously connected the idea of hypertext with DNS and TCP?

Who made the first web server and web browser?

Millennium Copyright Act Readings

What piece of legislation specifically protects internet service providers from being sued for illegal content that appears on their customer’s websites?

OCILLA is a piece of legislation that is part of what US Act that was signed into law by President Clinton in 1988?

I have written a book and I own the copyright. You want to use it in the class you are teaching this semester (you’re now a professor! YAY!) The law allows you to use my book without asking for my permission but the legality of this use is based on 4 conditions. What are these conditions?

Music that is not controlled or owned by anyone is known as what kind of intellectual property?

Which type of intellectual property allows use but requires that you acquire written permission from the author as well as providing a citation.

After a copyright expires, the work converts to what form of intellectual property?

Is the copyright symbol required on printed material for that work to be protected by copyright?

In 1998 President Clinton signed the legislation that included OCILLA. To what group did this provide limited protection?

OCILLA is one part of what broader legislation?

List two of the four specific conditions that are used to determine Fair Use.

I have written a book and I own the copyright. You want to use it in the class you are teaching this semester (you’re now a professor! YAY!) The law allows you to use my book without asking for my permission but the legality of this use is based on 4 conditions. What is this type of use of my copyrighted material called?

List the four specific conditions that are used to determine Fair Use.

Some music is not controlled or owned by anyone. Classical music is one example of this. In intellectual property terms, what do we call this type of music?

Give two of the four specific factors used to determine Fair Use.

In the Internet, what does the DNS do?

Who does OCILLA protect?

OCILLA is spelled out in Title II of what US Act, signed into law by President Clinton in 1988?

In order for a work to be protected by copyright, the copyright symbol must appear on the work, true or false?

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