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Chapter 1: Introduction

1. digital media- bits that represent text, sound, pictures, can be treated as data by computer programs.

- interactive in a way that other media cannot be

I. Historical Context- multimedia is new

1. CD-ROM- 1985

2. WWW- 1992

-1997- HTML 3.2 for audio and video

3. History of film and animation

- Lumiere bros- 1895- Paris- projections

- McCay- Gertie the Dinosaur- 1 of the 1st short animations made in America- 1909

- WWI- newsreels like newspapers, even had a comic animation

- just like film, multimedia looks to previous media for form and content- not yet evolved

- Taking advantage of the fact that digital multimedia is data

II. Terminology

1. multimedia production- a mixture of media under software control, as in a Web page

2. multimedia application- the display of the media is more intimately bound up with computation.

For example, a Web page providing an interactive interface.

3. We read, look at, watch, listen to, and interact with a multimedia production.

4. user- one who uses a multimedia production

5. multimedia and multiple media best understood from the point of view of the user

- modalities- reading text, looking at pics, listening to sound, and so on

- multiple media production- production in which you switch between modalities

- multimedia- real-life combination of modalities, like a pop video

- digital multimedia- “any combination of two or more media, represented in a digital form, sufficiently well integrated to be presented via a single

interface, or manipulated by a single computer program” (common to require one media to be time-based, like sound or video).

III. Delivery

1. online delivery- uses a network to send info from one computer ( a server machine) to another (a PC). Ex.: WWW (the Web and the net are not synonymous)

2. offline delivery- has removable storage medium. Ex.: CD-ROM- would hold large files of multimedia data, inexpensive to duplicate.

- smooth playback of full-screen video still impossible

- high development costs never caught public imagination

3. online delivery seems the future of multimedia. Some CD-ROMs have increasing trend of a combination of online and offline delivery.

-DVD- 1995- originally Digital Video Disk to replace VHS (became Digital Versatile Disk to accommodate interchangeability)

a. higher storage capacity

b. rudimentary form of interactive multimedia

4. online delivery allows for almost live multimedia content, like video conferencing.

IV. Non-linearity

1. two models for combining elements: page-based and time-based

- time-based- embedded in page as if images, occupying fixed area; sequenced, timely organized

- individual pages combined using links (not necessarily fixed order).

- Hypermedia- linked page-based multimedia productions (WWW)

- Multimedia presentations, timeline- based productions, incorporate parallelism

a. Flash- most widely- used time-based multimedia technology on the Web.

2. non-linearity- unifies time-based and page-based models of multimedia. (time-based and hypermedia)

V. Interactivity

1. control over “content and flow of info” remains with the producer

2. When embedded in rich environment w/ high-quality graphics and evocative sound, can dramatically increase attractiveness of a production

3. interactivity is not always what ppl want

4. User Interfaces

- disadvantages to user interfaces

a. unfamiliar interface conventions

b. everything looks the same

- requirements of incorporating time- based media have given rise to new interface conventions

VI. Social and Ethical Considerations

1. technology is neutral and without moral value; only the uses to which ppl choose to put technology need to be subjected to moral scrutiny

2. Access to Multimedia: Consumption

- depends on

a. access to appropriate hardware- poverty

b. possession of necessary skills- computer literacy

c. local conditions

d. physical/learning disabilities- arthritis, blindness, dyslexia

- WWW Consortium- address access for the disabled, but little evidence that website designers use it

- Access is not, and probably never will be, universal, especially outside the industrialized nations

a. if multimedia becomes the primary channel of info, ppl will be denied access to info, therefore deepening already existing economic divisions.

3. Access to Multimedia: Production

- internet access often means access to production

a. access to the means of production and distribution of traditional media is tightly restricted – only sell books, promote music they think are going to

sell, and the cost of making a film is high 

b. on top of all its benefits, ppl also have to visit the site

4. Control of Multimedia

- limited # of sites ppl visits habitually

a. normally home sites of internet service providers (like MSN). AKA: Web portals

(1) news service, articles on technology or lifestyles, horoscopes, advertisements, online shopping

- though Web media relies on conventional media for content, it allows for a new kind of relationship between consumers and producers

5. The Control of Content

- the plurality of political and social systems that exist in the world means that it is unrealistic to expect a single model of censorship to be acceptable


- a society’s history , state of development, political system, and religious institutions and beliefs determine what sorts of media or multimedia content

are considered objectionable. 

a. still a disagreement about the precise limits of acceptability

- separation between what’s acceptable in a portrayal of life and what’s acceptable in reality

a. US 1930 films

(1) happily married couples in separate beds, violence and murder

-Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS)

a. tries to accommodate a diversity of attitudes toward content and censorship

b. restricts reception, unlike conventional methods that restrict distribution

c. labels associated with each Web page; provides a rating of its content. Undesirable material rejected by screening software.

d. Service description- a document that specifies the format of some rating service’s


(1) allow users to specify controls based on the labels they describe

(2) green label for environmentally dangerous practices on Website

e. when first introduced, Recreational Software Advisory Council (RSAC) covered violence, sex, nudity, and language labels

(1) Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA) took over and provided questionnaires for Web masters to fill in providing a range of labels. Mission: the

protection of children.

f. labels attached to page itself or URL at the server. Have to trust the labeling service

g. mechanisms to restrict access can be a way of easily locating.

Chapter 2

I. Digital Representation

1. bits- 0 or 1

2. bytes, AKA: words

a. 8 bits = 1 byte

b. Often 4 bytes or 32 bits

3. patterns can be assigned to an interpretation

4. ASCII: characters assigned to values assigned to bit patterns

5. address- the position of a byte in a sequence (behave like numbers)

6. data structures- ex: values corresponding to brightness in a black and white image

7. bit patterns can represent instructions

a. programs- sequences of instructions

b. a computer is a stored program machine

A. Digitization

1. Ex. Of analogue and digital representation: clocks

2. time-varying and space-varying signals (measurements)

3. digitization- the process of converting a signal from analogue to digital form (2 steps)

a. sampling- measuring the signal’s value at discrete intervals

b. quantization- restricting the value to a fixed set of levels

4. carried out by analogue digital converters (ADCs)

5. sampling rate- the number of samples in a fixed amount of time/ space

6. quantization levels- the levels to which a signal is quantized

7. digital signals are much more robust than analogue ones, and do not suffer degradation when

they are copied, or transmitted over noisy media

8. how to fill in gaps of digitization samples

a. “sample and hold”- the value of a sample is used for the entire extent between it and the

following sample

(1) undersampling- the sample is too far apart to predict what went on between the samples

9. Any waveform can be decomposed into its frequency components, and frequencies, like signals

may be either temporal or spatial (ex: a periodic fluctuation of brightness).

a. the more frequency components added, the better the approximation

10. higher frequency components are associated with abrupt transitions

11. Sampling Theorem- if the highest frequency component of a signal is at f^h, the signal can

be properly reconstructed if it has been sampled at a frequency greater than 2f^h. This

limiting value is known as the Nyquist rate. (the lowest sampling rate for proper


12. aliasing- if we undersample a signal (>N) some frequency components in the original will

get transformed into other frequencies when the signal is reconstructed

a. sound: a distortion

b. images: jagged edges or Moire patterns

c. moving pics: jerkiness

13. posterization- brightness contouring; colored areas blend (coalesce), like a cheaply

printed poster

14. might limit quantization levels to reduce amount of memory occupied by digitized data

(restrict number of bits used to hold each sample value)

15. quantization noise- form of distortion; its worst manifestation is a coarse hiss

II. Hardware and Software Requirements

A. Hardware

1. resource requirements: fast enough computers with sufficient memory and large high-speed

disks, and broadband network connections

2. requirements for multimedia consumption and requirements for multimedia production

3. the multimedia PC

4. raw processing power, high-speed data buses, large main memories, and powerful graphics

boards needed for production, as well as fast high-capacity secondary storage for preparation

of finished product

5. the speed of data transfer to and from large disks is a more serious limiting factor.

However, new interface standards support higher data rates (FireWire 400, FireWire 800)

6. RAID array- Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks; put together out of cheaper, relatively

slow, disks

a. Level 0 RAID- “data striping”; a data block being written to the array is split into

segments which are written to separate disks.

b. Level 1 RAID- disk mirroring

7. the expectations of domestic consumers are high, so for productions intended for the

domestic market, production values must be correspondingly high.

B. Software

1. authoring systems- devised to carry out the task within an organizational framework that

permits the automation of much of the work that would otherwise require programming

2. The making of a multimedia production can involve a host of software tools and skills, some

of them special to multimedia, others belonging to existing disciplines.

3. key to integration: a framework that can accommodate a multiplicity of media and present

them to the user. 3 Approaches:

a. define format that can accommodate different media, and view it using a dedicated browser.

Ex. WWW (a markup language, HTML or XML)

b. define architecture, comprising a format that can contain different media types, together

with an API (Application Programming Interface) that provides a rich set of functions to

manipulate data in that format. EX. QuickTime

c. deliver the multimedia production in a ‘stand alone’ form, that needs no additional software

to be used. EX. Flash

III. Networks

1. TCP/IP- a standard set of protocols

2. in developed countries the Internet is rapidly achieving the status of a public data

network, analogous to the public communication network of the telephone system

3. technical difficulties: users have high expectations, that might include interactivity, for

the digital media that they find on the Internet

4. unreasonable to expect to be able to use anything slower than 28kbps; considerate to provide

some alternative to media, like text, for users w/ slower connections

5. broadband- various new technologies that avoid analogue connection to make direct use of the

digital telephone system’s potentially higher bandwidth

6. ADSL- (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)- the leading new method for access over existing

copper telephone wires; 6.1 Mbps downstream, 640 kbps upstream

7. another way of avoiding analogue connection restriction: use the cable television network

8. Many users of broadband find that the convenience of a connection that is always on is more

valuable than the increased speed of broadband

9. It remains the case that in most countries, broadband is still used by only a minority of


10. Commercial Internet users, especially those operating their own Web servers, usually prefer

to lease dedicated lines to provide a fixed connection to ISPs.

11. Table 2.1 Data transfer rates over the Internet

12. The advantage of faster access between the user and the ISP can only be maintained if the

connections between the ISPs are upgraded proportionally as more users acquire faster access,

and if data can be delivered by the machines at the far end of the connection at the same rate

at which it can be transferred

13. Local area networks provide much faster data transfer than the Internet

A. Clients and Servers

1. programs called servers “listen” on a communication channel for requests form other

programs, called clients, which are generally running on a different machine elsewhere on the

network. Whenever a server receives a request, it sends a response, which provides some service

or data to the client. The requests and responses conform to a protocol, a set of rules

governing their format and the actions to be taken by a server or client when it receives a

request or response.

2. Web servers and clients communicate with each other using the HyperText Transfer Protocol,

usually abbreviated to HTTP

3. the info in the WWW is more properly described as hypermedia

4. URL (uniform resource locator)- http://www.digitalmedia.org/DMM2/index.html

a. domain name: www.digitalmultimedia.org

b. /DMM2/index.html: a file in that machine’s file system

5. WWW clients are usually browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla, which allow us to

access Web pages interactivity

6. Web servers often run on dedicated powerful machines, usually running a special server

version of Windows, Mac OS X or Unix, to enable them to cope with heavy traffic

7. Most servers augment their basic Web page serving function with interfaces to the other

programs running on the same machine

8. intranet- many LANs are based on the same TCP/IP protocols that are used on the Internet,

and often they use the same high level protocols, so that, for example, multimedia data can be

served over a LAN using HTTP

B. MIME Types

1. MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension) is an extension to the Internet mail protocols

that supports the inclusion of data other than plain ASCII text in mail messages

2. An HTTP response includes a MIME content type header, which takes the form: Content-type:

type/ subtype

Ex.: HTML- text/html, GIF-image/ gif

a. types: text, image, audio, video, model (for 3D model data), message (e-mail), and

application (binary data, including executable programs, that must be processed in some way)

3. if any subtype is not included in the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is

an “experimental” subtype

IV. Standards

1. Definition by International Organization for Standards (ISO): agreements that contain

specific technical criteria to be used as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics

to ensure that materials, products, processes, and services are fit for their purpose

2. Conforming to a standard just means doing something the standard way

3. Open systems that can accommodate data from any platform or source are needed in the case of


4. Because modern networks cross national boundaries, and carry data all over the world,

international standards are essential

5. 3 organizations involved in international multimedia standards:

a. ISO- works through national standards bodies of its member countries who administer

committees that formulate standards, w/ISO itself operating as a coordinating agency

b. IEC (International Electronical Commission)- operates in a similar way w/ relevant national

bodies responsible for electrotechnical standards.

c. ITU- (International Telecommunication Union)- agency of the UN that has a more regulatory

function. Ex: the ITU allocates frequencies to radio services

6. Since standards will only be observed if there is a consensus among the concerned parties, a

great deal of politics and compromises may be involved in the production of a standard

7. Since the internet is an open network architecture, it relies on standard protocols to

enable different networks to be interconnected

a. Internet Architecture Board- (IAB) responsible for further development of protocols and for administering info required for protocols to operate

1) Internet Engineering Task Force- (IETF) technical development

2) Internet Assigned Numbers Authority- (IANA) registers MIME types, language codes, etc.

b. World Wide Web Consortium- (W3C) organization responsible for defining WWW standards; its

Recommendations are treated as standards

8. Advantage of an ad hoc approach to standards: it accommodates rapid change. Disadvantage:

manufactures feel less compunction in ignoring, adapting, or extending standards

9. De facto standard- one company’s product may come to dominate the market to such an extent

that it becomes a standard in all but name

Chapter 3

1. Graphics- the software and hardware technologies used in a computer system to create, modify and display still images

stored in a digital form; graphics is the enabling technology for all the visual elements of multimedia

2. the Web has begun to develop its own vocab., which takes account of it’s limitations and takes advantage of its particular


3. visual representations of data can be generated and displayed to help make large quantities of info. more readily


I. Vector Graphics and Bitmapped Graphics

1. Pixels- small, usually square, dots of color which merge optically when viewed at a suitable distance to produce the

impression of continuous tones

2. A graphics application program must somehow keep an internal model of the image to be displayed

3. Rendering- the process of generating a pattern of pixels from a model

4. Two approaches to graphical modeling : bitmapped graphics and vector graphics

5. Bitmapped- the image is modeled by an array of pixel values

a. Logical pixels- stored values

b. Physical pixels- physical dots on a display screen

c. Scaling and clipping are the only computations that need to be performed to display a bitmapped image

6. Vector graphics- the image is stored as a mathematical description of a collection of individual lines, curves and shapes

making up the image.

7. Differences

Bitmapped /Vector

1) Record value of every pixel /1)compact

2) Size of image and resolution at which its stored, only factors determining amount of memory

occupied /2)the more complex the picture, the more objects there are, and the larger

the description

3) Painting program: “detail” /3)drawing program: “simple”

4) Greater size, loss of quality 4)scaling can be performed easily as a simple mathematical operation

5) Painting program: make wide range of different marks and apply color to arbitrary areas of image /5)in drawing program:

shapes defined by outlines, and color applied to the regions defined by those shapes

6) Different set of tools 6)different set of tools

7) More expressive but high memory and scalability problems

7)source of image /8) Source of image

II. Combining Vectors and Bitmaps

1. vectors→ bitmaps= easy

2. rasterizing- the process of interpreting vector description; the image loses all its vector properties and a resolution

must be chosen

3. bitmaps→ vectors= problematic

a. requires software to identify boundaries using available sorts of curves and lines, and color appropriately

b. vectorization can be used in a controlled fashion to generate a starting point for a new vector image

4. Most drawing programs allow you to import bitmaps without vectorizing them

a. treated as indivisible object

b. cannot be broken into its component shapes

c. certain filter effects that rely on being able to change individual strokes cannot be applied to it

5. Sometimes just want vectors to have appearance of bitmapped images: “brush strokes”

a. as far as appearance of resulting artwork is concerned, these effects blur the distinction between drawing and painting

programs, but internally the strokes are still being applied algorithmically to paths stored in vector form

III. Layers

1. layer- often linked to a digital verson of a sheet of clear acetate material, like an overhead projector transparency

2. an immediate consequence of this ability is that it provides a way of distinguishing objects in a bitmapped image

3. compositing- combining

4. a different way of using layers is a digital tracing paper

5. another way of using layers is for experimentation

a. recorded

b. duplicated

c. made invisible

6. the degree of transparency can be varied unlike sheets of acetate

7. the normal behavior of layers is for the areas that are not transparent to cover any layers beneath. Sometimes it may be

preferable for these areas to be blended with lower layers instead, or dissolved into them

8. adjustment layers- (Photoshop) a layer through which you can look at the image through a medium that applies some effect,

such as a tonal adjustment

IV. File Formats

1. different formats have different characteristics that make them suitable for different types of images

2. for bitmapped images: one main difference is the way they compress image data

a. lossless compression- it is always possible to reconstruct the original data exactly from its compressed version

b. lossy compression- algorithms discard some data in order to achieve greater compression

3. one way of reducing the size of a bitmapped image is to restrict the number of different colors that it can contain

4. Although the Web doesn’t specify a format for graphics, it’s adopted certain formats as its standard

5. Bitmapped

a. GIF- CompuServe; lossless compression, restricted to 265 colors; transparent features allow for non-rectangular images;

suitable for simple images

b. JPEG- Joint Photographic Experts Group; scanned and photographic images; JPEG data can be embedded in other files

c. PNG- devised to supersede GIFs (GIF can’t be freely implemented); not restricted to 265, offers a more sophisticated form

of transparency than does GIF; has the status of a W3C Reccomendation

d. Outside the WWW

1) TIFF- (Tag Image File Format) store full color bitmaps using several different compression schemes; supported by painting

programs, but cannot always be read interchangeably; supported by Windows (line BMP)

2) BMP- Microsoft Windows Bitmap format; supports a simple form of lossless compression, usually stored uncompressed

3) TGA- earliest to support more than 256 on PCs; use is probably declining

6. Vector

a. PostScript- Adobe Systems in the mid 1980s; can’t store single images in isolation

b. EPS- (Encapsulated Post Script) images are self-contained (Not ideal for the Web)

1) bounding box comment- (EPS files) describes dimensions of the image

c. Scaleable Vector Graphics- easier to implement, more compact for transmissions; derivate of PostScript

d. SWF- in wide use of vector images ; achieved ad hocstandard

7. graphics metafile- this sort of file format that accommodates both vector and bitmapped graphics, and usually text, too

8. Photoshop and Illustrator files preserve any layers that might have been used in making the image

9. QuickTime works with multimedia architecture (all MM)

Chapter 4

I. Fundamentals

A. Coordinates and Vectors

1. a natural way of identifying any single pixel is by giving its column and row number in a rectangular array

2. coordinates can have any real value; the values are not restricted to any finite maximum. We also allow negative coordinates

3. rules- axes

4. contrary to mathematical convention, graphics packages and language often have the y values increasing downwards.

5. your drawing program will convert from its coordinate system to that of whichever device your drawing is rendered on (coordinate transformation)

6. coordinates in one system (the user space) are transformed into a different one ( the device space)

7. the displacement from P1 to P2 is (x2-x1, y2-y1), written (P2-P1). This is called a vector.

8. remember that a pixel’s coordinates are always integers (whole numbers), and we cannot set the value of just part of a pixel. The pixel image can only

approximate the ideal mathematical object which the vector model describes (forms an uneven staircase)

B. Anti- aliasing

1. the process of rendering a vector object to produce an image made up of pixels can usefully be considered as a form of sampling and reconstruction. Seen

in this light, jaggies are a form of aliasing caused by undersampling (jaggies always possible, no matter how high the resolution that is used for rendering

a vector shape).

2. anti-aliasing- coloring each pixel in a shade of grey whose brightness is proportional to the area of the intersection ( at the expense of a certain


II. Shapes

1. Bezier curve- a class of smooth curves

2. vector programs can be used to achieve complex and subtle effects, especially once you understand how to work with Bezier curves

3. the potential and limitations of vector graphics

a. the way in which a drawing package allows you to work with shapes is a reflection of the way in which those shapes are represented in graphics files

b. polyline- a sequence of connected lines is sometimes considered as a single object

c. can ask Illustrator to make rectangles and ellipses into squares and circles by holding the shift key while using the rectangle/ellipse tool

A. Curves

1. Bezier curve specified by 4 points: endpoints and direction point

a. direction points- show the direction in which the curve sets off from each endpoint; don’t usually lie on the curve itself

b. control points- the endpoints and direction points, collectively.

2. lengths of the lines from each endpoint to its direction point determine how wide a sweep the curve marks

3. direction line- showing how far you have pulled

4. once you have the first one right, you click at the point where you want the curve to end, and drag away from the direction point

B. Paths

1. What makes Bezier curves useful is the ease with which they can be combined to make more elaborate curves and irregular shapes

2. The smoothness of joins when control points line up and direction lines are the same length is the reason behind the display of direction lines in

drawing programs

3. sometimes you will want your curve to change direction instead of continuing smoothly. In Illustrator, hold down option or alt key after creating

direction lines at a point; you can then drag direction point for the new curve segment round to where you want it, to make an abrupt corner.

4. path- a collection of lines and curves (don't have to be connected)

5. closed- if a path joins up on itself, open if otherwise

6. segment- each individual line or curve

7. anchor points- the points where segments join (the original endpoints of the segments)

8. tolerance setting: a high tolerance leads to a more efficient path, with fewer anchor points, which may, however, smooth out some of the smaller

movements you made with the pencil tool

C. Stroke and Fill

1. you can use paths as a specification of something you can see. you can do this 2 different ways:

a. apply a stroke to the path, making it visible

b. treat the path as the outline of a shape, and fill it

2. customary for drawing program to support both dashed and solid strokes

3. line cap- the shape of a stroke's ends

a. butt cap- cutting off square at the ends

b. round cap- the line is finished off with a filled-in semicircle built across its end

c. projecting cap- the stroke continues beyond the endpoint of the path by half the width, so that the weight of the stroke relative to the path is the same in all directions

4. 3 styles of line join (by illustrator)

a. mitre- the outside edges of the line are extended to meet at a point

b. round- a circular arc is used to produce a rounded corner

c. bevel- the segments are finished off square where they join, and the resulting notch is filled in with a triangle to produce a flat-ended joint

d. figure 4.19

5. use strokes as an outline and fill it

a. can fill both closed and open paths in most drawing programs

6. can fill with single color, but also: gradient fills and patterns

a. gradient fills- type of fill that is characterized by a gradual transition btwn colors or tones

b. linear gradient- the colors at each end of a region are specified, and a smooth blend of intermediate colors is generated in between

c. radial gradient- the color varies outwards from a center point to the outside of the fill

7. patterns are built out of elements called tiles

a. tiles- a small piece of artwork, made using the facilities provided by your drawing program

8. some drawing program allow you to use patterns to stroke paths, producing a textured outline

9. non-zero winding number rule

a. draw a conceptually infinite line from the point in any direction

b. set the winding number to zero

1) every time the path crosses the line from left to right, add 1

2) every time the path crossed the line from right to left, subtract 1

c. if the winding number is zero, the point is outside the path, otherwise it is inside

III. Transformations and Filters

1. can transform an image by editing the model that is stored in the computer

2. transformations

a. translation- a linear movement of the object (displacement)

b. scaling

c. rotation

dBold text. reflection

e. shearing- a distortion of the angles of the axes of an object

3. other, less structured, transformations can be achieved by moving (i.e. changing the coordinates of) the anchor points and control points of paths

4. filters (Illustrator)

a. roughening- produces a rough edge to an object by moving the anchor points of it's path in a jagged pattern

b. scribbling- moves the anchor points in a random fashion

c. roughening corners- converts corner points into smooth curves

5. these transformations a re achieved simply by altering the coordinates of the defining points of the objects, altering the stored model using nothing

but arithmetical operations which can be performed efficiently

IV. 3-D Graphics

1. 3-D graphics- vector graphics based on 3 dimensional models

2. In abstract mathematical terms; generalizing coordinate geometry from 2 dimensions to 3 is straightforward (add z-coordinate)

3. 3-D- must rotate about a line ( see figure 4.33: rotations in 3 dimensions)

4. right-handed coordinate system: see figure 4.34

5. x- and z- axes usually make the ground plane

6. 3-D- instead of defining shapes by paths, we must define objects by surfaces

7. Once a collection of objects has been modeled, they are arranged in space, usually interactively

8. most complex objects can be described as a collection of sub-objects, each of which might be a collection of sub-sub-objects, and so on, until we reach

the smallest component objects, which can be modeled in a simple way

9. rendering in 3-D: we need a flat picture; position an imaginary camera

10. although 3-D systems are reasonably good at using lighting models derived from the underlying physics, they are not perfect, and designers sometimes

have to resort to physical inabilities, such as negative spotlights, for absorbing unwanted light

11. 3-D software is more complex and difficult to use

12. Rendering 3-D models can be be an extremely computationally expensive process, that often

requires additional hardware (often 3-D accelerator PCI cards) to achieve acceptable

performance on desktop machines

A. 3-D Models

1. 3 general approaches

a. constructive solid geometry- using a few geometric solids as elements from which to

construct more complex objects

1) only done to two objects

b. free fall modeling- use a representation of an object's boundary surface as the basis of its


1) drawback- polygons don't fit together smoothly when used to approximate curved surfaces

2) solution- treat the two dimensional shape as a cross section, and define the volume by

sweeping the cross section along a path

3) extrusion- a shape creates an object with a unifrom cross section as it travels along a

straight line, like a circle creating a cylindar

4) lathing- making circular paths to generate drinking vessels and vases (traditional turned


c. procedural modeling- uses objects that are described by an algorithm or procedure; instead

of defining a circle with an equation, you use something like "draw a curve that maintains a

constant distance r from the origin"

1) fractals- shapes that exhibit the same structure at all levels of detail; replace each

segment by a scaled-down copy of the entire shape

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8: Animation

Chapter 9


What is copyright? It is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time.

Name two rights that the copyright holder is given The right to be credited for the work and to determine who may adapt the work to other forms.

What does Fair use allow? Allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders, such as use for scholarship or review

To justify the use of information fair, what does one have to demonstrate? One must demonstrate how it either advances knowledge or the progress of the arts through the addition of something new.

When was Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) passed? October 28,1998

Copyright covers ideas and information themselves. True or False? False; Only the form or manner in which they are expressed.

Two authors may own copyright on two substantially identical works, if it is determined that the duplication was coincidental, and neither was copied from the other. True or False? True

A widely circulated strategy to avoid the cost of copyright registration is referred to as the "poor man's copyright." It proposes that the creator send the work to himself in a sealed envelope by registered mail, using the postmark to establish the date.The United States Copyright Office accepts this technique as substitute for actual registration. True or False? False

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use how many different factors are there to consider? Four

The four factors of analysis for fair use set forth are? 1.Purpose and character 2.Nature of the copied work 3.Amount and substantiality 4.Effect upon work's value

DMCA Title III modified section 117 of the copyright title states that those repairing computers can make certain temporary, limited copies while working on a computer. True or False True

What is the DMCA Title V? Vessel Hull Design Protection Act

How long does a copyright last? It lasts anywhere form 50-100 years after the creators death

"The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes" is a factor in determining what? Whether something is fair use or not

What was the origonal use of copyright? It was used as a way for the government to restrict printing.

True or False: A work that that does not have a copyright symbol is public domain? False: A law passed in 1989 made it assumed to be copyrighted unless the author opts out

How are copyrights enforced? They are enforced by civil matter or in some cases by criminal sanctions.

What is the name of the law that changed the length of a copyright in the United States in 1998? Copyright Term Extension Act

The fair use doctrine stems from which constitutional amendment? The first amendment

What are 2 of several international conventions that standardized the copyright law? Berne Convention and Universal Copyright Convention

What are 2 fundamental justifications of copyright laws established by the legislative acts? 1. To benefit society by promoting the creation of new works. 2. To protect the moral rights the creators of the works.

Few of several exclusive rights attached to the holder of a copyright are... To import or export work; to perform or display work publicly; to sell or assign their rights to others; to transmit or display by radio or video.

What does "exclusive right" mean? Only the copyright holder is free to exercise those rights, and others are prohibited from using the work without his permission.

What is a fair use doctrine? A doctrine in the US copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the right holder.

What does it mean that DMCA is anti-competitive? It gives copyright holders--and the technology companies that distribute their content-- the legal power to create closed technology platforms and exclude competitors from interoperating with them.

When are Exemptions granted? Exemptions are granted when it is shown that access-control technology has had a substantial adverse effect on the ability of the people to make noninfringing uses of copyrighted works.

When do exemptions expire? Exemptions expire after three years.

True or False: Facts and Ideas are part of copyright protection? False-Only their particular expression or fixation merits such protection.

What does DCMA stand for? Digital Millennium Copyright Act

What are the 4 factors that determine whether the work was used with Fair Use?

      1. the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes
      2. the nature of the copyrighted work
      3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole
      4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

What year was the Copyright Act created? 1976

True or False: If there is not a copyright notice, then that means the work is public domain False

What are derivative works? Works that adapt the original works

What does OCILLA stand for? Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act

What does OCILLA do? It protects online service providers against copyright liability if they follow certain rules.

What does DMCRA stand for? Digital Media Consumer’s Rights Act

What does SSSCA stand for? Security Systems and Standards Certification Act

Which President signed the Millennium Copyright Act into law? Bill Clinton

Is linking to infringing content illegal? Yes

What stems from the U.S. first amendment? The United States Trademark law

Why was the copyright originally created? To restrict printing

What year was the Universal Copyright Convention drafted? 1952

True or False: Any use that seems fair is fair use False

True or False: If it is copyrighted, it is NOT fair use False

These are musical recordings that have not been officially released by the artist or their associated management or production companies. Bootleg Recordings

In 1984 Paul McCartney failed to gain the publishing rights to the Beatles catalog by getting outbid by what celebrity? Michael Jackson

Classical music is an example of (Fill in Blank), it is not controlled or owned by anyone. (Bertley) Public Domain

Dave Chapelle would be a victim of (Fill in Blank) if another comedian stole his material without his consent and took credit for it. (Bertley) Joke Thievery

A janitor invents an item that combines a knife and a wrench called a "Knife-Wrench." If for some reason the State Government decides to buy his invention, the janitor will receive a (Fill in Blank), a set of exclusive rights granted by the state to an inventor for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of the invention.(Bertley) Patent

Which Act of the Congress was amended by the Digital Millenium Copyright Act? (Amulakun) Copyright Act of 1976

In what time interval are the exemption rules revised? (Amulakun) Every three years

What is title II of the DMCA? (Meaddy) It limits the liability of Internet Service Providers for certain infringements

What is another reason the Copyright act was designed? (Meaddy) To implement the treaties signed in December 1996 at the World Intellectual Property Organization Geneva Conference

Who opposed the Copyright Act? scientists, librarians, and academics

What United States Senator introduced the Copyright Act of 1976? John Little McClellan


When using the internet, The browser runs on the CLIENT and the website is hosted on the SERVER.

Distinct parts of a URL. Protocol to use, Domain name

Web Crawler? Automatically search to collect and aggregate info

Xerox Parc model, Xerox Alto III and GUI? Alan Kay

Who invented the internet? Tim Berners-Lee

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