Chapter 9 Jammal,Henry,Abd

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1. Adware- advertising-supported software, is any software package which automatically renders advertisements in order to generate revenue for its author. The advertisements may be in the user interface of the software or on a screen presented to the user during the installation process.

2. Antivirus software-is computer software used to prevent, detect and remove malicious software.

3. Backdoor program - hackers can access and do about anything else.

4. Backup - process by saving data on an external system.

5. Biometric authentication device - devices that uses finger print, face recognition, and pattern as a method of security.

6. Black hat hacker - destroy information or for illegal gain

7. Boot-sector virus-is a computer virus that infects a storage device's master boot record (MBR).

8. Botnet-(also known as a zombie army) is a number of Internet computers that, although their owners are unaware of it, have been set up to forward transmissions (including spam or viruses) to other computers on the Internet.

9. Cookie- is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored in a user's web browser while the user is browsing that website.

10. Cybercrime - any criminal action perpetrated primarily through the use of a computer.

11. Cybercriminal - someone doing illegal stuff through the use of a computer and internet.

12. Cyberloafing - the act of employees using their organization's Internet access for personal purposes during work hours

13. Data file-is a computer file which stores data to be use by a computer application or system.

14. Denial of Service (DoS) attack - is a malicious attempt to make a server or a network resource unavailable to users, usually by temporarily interrupting or suspending the services of a host connected to the Internet.

15. Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) attack - attack is an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users.

16. Drive-by download - refers to the unintentional download of a virus or malicious software (malware) onto your computer or mobile device.

17. Dynamic addressing - are less security risk as the computer is assigned a new IP address each time the customer logs on, they are cost effective and there is automatic network configuration

18. E-mail virus - virus that is embedded onto a users email.

19. Encryption virus - A virus using encryption to hide itself from virus scanners. That is, the encrypted virus jumbles up its program code to make it difficult to detect.

20. Firewall- firewall is a network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on an applied rule set

21. Hacker-is someone who seeks and exploits weaknesses in a computer system or computer network.

22. Hoax-an email that provides a warning about a ... contained an "Olympic torch" that would burn a computer's entire hard drive

23. Identity theft-is a form of stealing someone's identity in which someone pretends to be someone else by assuming that person's identity, usually as a method to gain access to resources or obtain credit and other benefits in that person's name

24. Image backup-a backup process for a computer or virtual machine (VM) that creates a copy of the operating system and all the data associated with it, including the system state, and application configurations and saves it as a single file.

25. Incremental backup- one that provides a backup of files that have changed or are new since the last incremental backup

26. Inoculation-A process used by antivirus software; compares old and current qualities of files to detect viral activity

27. IP address-) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication

28. Keystroke logger-keylogger, is a type of software that captures and logs what a user on your computer types on the keyboard

29. Logic bomb-is a piece of code intentionally inserted into a software system that will set off a malicious function when specified conditions are met.

30. Logical port- is a software construct serving as a communications endpoint in a computer's host operating system.

31. Logical port blocking-A condition in which a firewall is configured to ignore all incoming packets that request access to a certain port so that no unwanted requests will get through to the computer

32. Macro virus-A virus that is distributed by hiding it inside a macro

33. Malware-Software that is intended to render a system temporarily or permanently useless or to penetrate a computer system completely for purposes of information gathering. Examples include spyware, viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.

34. Master boot record-A small program that runs whenever a computer boots up

35. Multipartite virus-Literally meaning “multipart” virus; a type of computer virus that attempts to infect both the boot sector and executable files at the same time.

36. Network address translation-A process that firewalls use to assign internal Internet Protocol (IP) addresses on a network

37. Packet-A small segment of data that is bundled for sending over transmission media. Each packet contains the address of the computer or peripheral device to which it is being sent

38. Packet filtering-A feature found in firewalls that filters out unwanted data packets sent to specific logical ports.

39. Packet sniffer-A program that looks at (sniffs) each data packet as it travels on the Internet

40. Personal firewall-A firewall specifically designed for home networks.

41. Pharming-Planting malicious code on a computer that alters the browser’s ability to find Web addresses and directs users to bogus Web sites.

42. Phishing-The process of sending e-mail messages to lure Internet users into revealing personal information such as credit card or Social Security numbers or other sensitive information that could lead to identity theft.

43. Polymorphic virus-A virus that changes its virus signature (the binary pattern that makes the virus identifiable) every time it infects a new file. This makes it more difficult for antivirus programs to detect the virus

44. Pretexting-The act of creating an invented scenario (the pretext) to convince someone to divulge information

45. Program file-A file that is used in the running of software programs

46. Quarantining-The placement (by antivirus software) of a computer virus in a secure area on the hard drive so that it won’t spread infection to other files.

47. Script-A list of commands (mini-programs or macros) that can be executed on a computer without user interaction

48. Script kiddy-An amateur hacker who lacks sophisticated computer skills. These individuals are typically teenagers, who don’t create programs used to hack into computer systems but instead use tools created by skilled hackers that enable unskilled novices to wreak the same havoc as professional hackers.

49. Social engineering-Any technique that uses social skills to generate human interaction for the purpose of enticing individuals to reveal sensitive information

50. Spam-Unwanted or junk e-mail

51. Spam filter-An option you can select in your e-mail account that places known or suspected spam messages into a folder other than your inbox

52. Spyware-An unwanted piggyback program that downloads with the software you want to install from the Internet and then runs in the background of your system.

53. Static addressing-A means of assigning an Internet Protocol (IP) address that never changes and is most likely assigned manually by a network administrator.

54. Stealth virus-A virus that temporarily erases its code from the files where it resides and hides in the active memory of the computer.

55. Surge protector-A device that protects computers and other electronic devices from power surges.

56. Time bomb-A virus that is triggered by the passage of time or on a certain date.

57. Trojan horse-A computer program that appears to be something useful or desirable (such as a game or a screen saver), but at the same time does something malicious in the background without the user’s knowledge.

58. Uninterruptable power supply (UPS)-A device designed to power a computer from large batteries for a brief period during a loss of electrical power.

59. Urban legend-A hoax that becomes so well known that it is accepted by society as true even though it is false. Also known as an urban myth.

60. Virus-A computer program that attaches itself to another computer program (known as the host program) and attempts to spread itself to other computers when files are exchanged.

61. Virus signature-A portion of the virus code that is unique to a particular computer virus and makes it identifiable by antivirus software.

62. White hat hacker-A hacker who breaks into systems just for the challenge of it (and who doesn’t wish to steal or wreak havoc on the systems). Such hackers tout themselves as experts who are performing a needed service for society by helping companies realize the vulnerabilities that exist in their systems.

63. Whole-house surge protector - a surge protector that protects the entire home from a electrical storm

64. Worm - virus that can spread without the hackers ability to control, this virus can spread on its own.

65. Zombie - is a computer connected to the Internet that has been compromised by a hacker

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