1)- In the convolution folder you will find a file named “convolutionCalculationV1.ppt”. Opening the powerpoint slide will reveal a black and white image, a section of the image showing pixel values, a convolution mask and a resulting image matrix. Calculate the 3 pixels marked with an X on the resulting image matrix.

2)- In the convolution folder you will find a file named “convolutionCalculationV2.ppt”. Opening the powerpoint slide will reveal a black and white image, a section of the image showing pixel values, a convolution mask and a resulting image matrix. Calculate the 3 pixels marked with an X on the resulting image matrix.

3) solid.jpg shows two objects, a cube and a sphere that have been moved to where they share some of the same space. Which of the images (solid.jpg, cubeSphereSolid.jpg, solid2.jpg and solid3.jpg) shows the difference of the sphere minus the cube?

4) solid.jpg shows two objects, a cube and a sphere that have been moved to where they share some of the same space. Which of the images (solid.jpg, cubeSphereSolid.jpg, solid2.jpg and solid3.jpg) shows the intersection of the two objects?

5)- solid.jpg shows two objects, a cube and a sphere that have been moved to where they share some of the same space. Which of the images (solid.jpg, cubeSphereSolid.jpg, solid2.jpg and solid3.jpg) could show the union of the cylinder and cube seen in imageA6.jpg?

6)- cubeSphereSolid.jpg shows two objects, a cube and a sphere that have been moved to where they share some of the same space. cubeSphereWire.jpg and cubeSphereWire2.jpg both show wireframe depictions of these two objects. Which one could show the union of the sphere and cube?

7)- A given vector is defined by the two points, (2.2, -2.7) and (1.4, 3.5). What is the displacement of this vector?

8)- Looking at objectManipulation.jpg you see 6 numbered, colored blocks. Which of the 6 blocks would be the result of reflecting block 1 across a horizontal axis?

9)- Displaying a vector graphic on a computer display like the ones we have in the lab is accomplished by converting the vector graphic to a bitmapped graphic. Invariably the result will be a jagged line rather than a smooth one. What technique is used to smooth the appearance of this jagged line?

10)- What kind of model building technique does Blender use?

11)- tableImage1V2.jpg is a small (3 X 3 pixel) image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are as follows: color 1 255,0,0 color 2 0,255,255 color 3 255,255,255 color 4 255,102,0 color 5 0,0,255

Allowing one byte for the “count” portion of the encoding, write out the string of bytes that would result from a run length encoding of that image.

12)- tableImage2V2.jpg is a small (3 X 3 pixel) image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are as follows: color 1 0,0,255 color 2 0,255,255 color 3 255,255,255 color 4 255,102,0

Write out the bitmapped portion of a table (aka dictionary) encoding of this image using the minimum number of bits needed to encode these 4 colors.

13)- Referring to #12 above, how many bytes long would this file be if you include both the color table and the bitmap?

14)- In tableImage2V2.jpg we have an image that measures 3 pixels by 3 pixels. If this were to be stored as an uncompressed, 24 bit RGB image, how many bytes would it be in length?

15)- Which type of image, bitmapped or vector graphic, is affected by the complexity of the image?

16)- What is it about human vision that JPEG image compression takes advantage of in order to compress a file?

17)- A vector is defined by two characteristics. What are they?

18)- What is one form of optical mixing that sacrifices resolution at the altar of color accuracy?

19)- (yes - no) The RGB color model, aka the tri-stimulus model of color, is modeled after human color vision and derives from the 3 different cones found in the human eye. For this reason it can accurately represent the entire gamut of colors that can be seen by humans.

20)- Using the CMYK model, magenta is what you get when you remove what color or colors from white?

21)- Using the CMYK model, magenta is what you get when you mix what colors of light?

22)- Holding a ball painted with pure blue paint you enter a room that is lit with yellow colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

23)- Holding a ball painted with white paint you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of red and green light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

24)- 24 bit color can produce 16,777,216 different colors. How many bits would you need to have half that many colors?

25)- Blender primarily used one form of model building mentioned in #10 above. Name another form of model building discussed in class.

1)- In the test2Folder you will find a file named “convolutionCalculationV1.ppt”. Opening the powerpoint slide will reveal a black and white image, a section of the image showing pixel values, a convolution mask and a resulting image matrix. Calculate the 3 pixels marked with an X on the resulting image matrix.

2)- In the test2Folder you will find a file named “convolutionCalculationV2.ppt”. Opening the powerpoint slide will reveal a black and white image, a section of the image showing pixel values, a convolution mask and a resulting image matrix. Calculate the 3 pixels marked with an X on the resulting image matrix.

3) imageA1.jpg shows two objects, a cylinder and a sphere. imageA2.jpg shows that those two objects have been moved so that the sphere intrudes on the cylinder. Which of the remaining images (imageA3.jpg, imageA4.jpg and imageA5.jpg) shows the difference of the cylinder minus the sphere?

4) ) imageA1.jpg shows two objects, a cylinder and a sphere. imageA2.jpg shows that those two objects have been moved so that the sphere intrudes on the cylinder. Which of the remaining images (imageA3.jpg, imageA4.jpg and imageA5.jpg) shows the intersection of the two objects?

5) imageA1.jpg shows two objects, a cylinder and a sphere. imageA2.jpg shows that those two objects have been moved so that the sphere intrudes on the cylinder. Which of the remaining images (imageA3.jpg, imageA4.jpg and imageA5.jpg) shows the difference of the sphere minus the cylinder?

6)- imageA6.jpg shows a cylinder that passes through a cube. wireFrame1.jpg and wireFrame2.jpg both show wireframe depictions of some objects. Which one could show the union of the cylinder and cube seen in imageA6.jpg?

7)- imageA6.jpg shows a cylinder that passes through a cube. wireFrame1.jpg and wireFrame2.jpg both show wireframe depictions of some objects. Which one simply shows the two objects, one passing through the other?

8)- Looking at imageA7.jpg you see 6 numbered, colored blocks. Which of the 6 blocks would be the result of reflecting block 1 across a line?

9)- Displaying a vector graphic on a computer display like the ones we have in the lab is accomplished by converting the vector graphic to a bitmapped graphic. Invariably the result will be a jagged line rather than a smooth one. What technique is used to smooth the appearance of this jagged line?

10)- What kind of model building technique does Blender use?

11)- tableImage1.jpg is a small (5 X 5 pixel) image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are as follows: color 1 255,102,0 color 2 255,255,255 color 3 0,128,0 color 4 0,255,255 color 5 255,0,0 color 6 0,0,255

Allowing one byte for the “count” portion of the encoding, write out the string of bytes that would result from a run length encoding of that image.

12)- tableImage2.jpg is a small (5 X 5 pixel) image. The 24 bit RGB color codes are as follows: color 1 255,102,0 color 2 255,255,255 color 3 0,0,255 color 4 0,255,255

Write out the bitmapped portion of a table (aka dictionary) encoding of this image using the minimum number of bits needed to encode the colors.

13)- Referring to #12 above, how many bytes long would this file be?

14)- In tableImage2.jpg we have an image that measures 5 pixels by 5 pixels. If this were to be stored as an uncompressed, 24 bit RGB image, how many bytes would it be in length?

15)- (true / false) The size of a bitmapped graphic is affected by the complexity of the captured image.

16)- What is it about human vision that JPEG image compression takes advantage of in order to compress a file?

17)- A vector is defined by two characteristics. One of these is length. What is the other?

18)- What is one form of optical mixing that sacrifices resolution at the altar of color accuracy?

19)- (yes - no) The RGB color model, aka the tri-stimulus model of color, is modeled after human color vision which derives from the 3 different cones found in the human eye. For this reason it can accurately represent the entire gamut of colors that can be seen by humans.

20)- Using the CMYK model, yellow is what you get when you remove what color from white?

21)- Using the CMYK model, yellow is what you get when you mix what primary colors?

22)- Holding a ball painted with pure blue paint you enter a room that is lit with cyan colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

23)- Holding a ball painted with white paint you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of red and blue light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

24)- 24 bit color can produce 16,777,216 different colors. How many different colors will there be if you choose to use an RGB color depth of 16 bits?

25)- You are working on a computer in the lab. You are working on your blender project and the upper left hand corner of the cube you just added is located at the absolute (x,y) position of (300,200). If you know that the absolute position of the upper left hand corner of the blender window is (50,50) what is the relative position of the cube?

1)- convolutionImages1.jpg shows the gray values found in a 7 X 7 gray scale image above a blank 7 X 7 image. Using convolutionMask1.jpg, calculate the value of the three pixels marked with an X shown on convolutionImages1.jpg. Show your work on the back of your crib sheet.

2)- convolutionImages2.jpg shows the gray values found in a 7 X 7 gray scale image above a blank 7 X 7 image. Using convolutionMask2.jpg, calculate the value of the three pixels marked with an X on convolutionImages2.jpg. Show your work on the back of your crib sheet.

3) test2Image1.jpg shows a red cylinder and a green sphere. test2Image4.jpg shows that those two objects have been moved so that the cylinder passes through the sphere. Which of the remaining images (test2Image2.jpg, test2Image3.jpg and test2Image5.jpg) which one shows the intersection of the two objects?

4) test2Image1.jpg shows a red cylinder and a green sphere. test2Image4.jpg shows that those two objects have been moved so that the cylinder passes through the sphere. Which of the remaining images (test2Image2.jpg, test2Image3.jpg and test2Image5.jpg) which one shows the difference of the sphere minus the cylinder?

5) test2Image1.jpg shows a red cylinder and a green sphere. test2Image4.jpg shows that those two objects have been moved so that the cylinder passes through the sphere. Which of the remaining images (test2Image2.jpg, test2Image3.jpg and test2Image5.jpg) which one shows the difference of the cylinder minus the sphere?

6)- test2Image1.jpg shows a red cylinder and a green sphere. Test2Image4.jpg shows that those two objects have been moved so that the cylinder passes through the sphere. Looking at the wireframe images of those same objects (test2Wireframe1.jpg and testWireframe2.jpg), which one shows the cylinder passing through the sphere.

7)- test2Image1.jpg shows a red cylinder and a green sphere. Test2Image3.jpg shows that those two objects have been moved so that the cylinder passes through the sphere. Looking at the wireframe images of those same objects (test2Wireframe1.jpg and testWireframe2.jpg), which one shows the union of those two objects?

8)- Name one of the compression schemes discussed in class (so far) that is not lossy.

9)- Name one of the compression schemes discussed in class (so far) that is lossy.

10)- What kind of model building technique does Blender use? 11)-In encodingImage1.jpg we see a 24 bit color image that measures 4 pixels by 4 pixels. The RGB values for the 4 colors seen in this image are: Blue: 0, 0, 255; Green: 0, 240, 50; Red: 200, 0, 50; and White: 255, 255, 255. With a table based storage scheme the color table would have 4 colors in it. What is the minimum number of bits that can be used in the bitmap portion of the image?

12)-In encodingImage1.jpg we see a 24 bit color image that measures 4 pixels by 4 pixels. The RGB values for the 4 colors seen in this image are: Blue: 0, 0, 255; Green: 0, 240, 50; Red: 200, 0, 50; and White: 255, 255, 255. Write out the byte string for this image if you were going to store it if you were using a Run Length Encoding scheme.

13)-Refer to #11 above. Assuming the count is one byte in length how long would this file be?

14)-In encodingImage1.jpg we see a 24 bit color image that measures 4 pixels by 4 pixels. If this was to be stored as an uncompressed RGB image, how many bytes would it be in length?

15)- In encodingImage2.jpg we see the same 24 bit color image seen in #13 except that the white has been changed to a shade of gray. Which of the following RGB color representations could be the color table entry for the middle grey color seen in this image? a) 0,100,200 b) 0,0,0 c) 200,210,250 d) 150,150,150

16)- What is it about human vision that JPEG image compression takes advantage of in order to compress a file?

17)- A vector is defined by two characteristics. One of these is length. What is the other?

18)- What is one form of optical mixing that sacrifices resolution at the altar of color accuracy?

19)- (yes - no) The RGB color model, or tri-stimulus model, is modeled after human color vision which relies on the 3 cones found in the eye. Surprisingly it can not accurately represent all the colors that can be seen by humans.

20)- Using the CMYK model, cyan is what you get when you remove what color from white?

21)- Using the CMYK model, cyan is what you get when you mix what primary colors?

22)- Holding a ball painted with pure green paint you enter a room that is lit with cyan colored light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

23)- Holding a ball painted with white paint you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of blue and green light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

24)- How many different colors will there be if you choose to use an RGB color depth of 12 bits, 4 bits for each of R, G & B?

25)- The image called screenshot.jpg is a screenshot of my messy computer screen. The large image that is seen at the left of that window is called encodingImage1.jpg. It’s upper left hand corner is in relative position (425, 390) within the Preview window called screenshot.jpg. The Preview window is in absolute position (150,50). What is the absolute position of encodingImage1.jpg?

1)-Using convolution Mask #4 found in ConvolutionMasks1.pdf, calculate the value of the three pixels marked with an X on convolution Image #3 found in ConvolutionImages.pdf. Show your work on the back of your crib sheet.

2)-Using the first convolution mask found in ConvolutionMasks2.pdf, calculate the value of the three pixels marked with an X on convolution Image #3 found in ConvolutionImages.pdf. Show your work on the back of your crib sheet.

3) In BooleanImageSet1.pdf image 1 shows two objects and image 2 shows those two objects moved, one inside the other. Of the remaining images 3 through 6, which one could show both the union of those two objects seen in image 2 and the intersection of those two objects?

4) In BooleanImageSet2.pdf image 1 shows two objects and image 2 shows those two objects moved, one inside the other. Of the remaining images 3 and 4, which one could show both the union of those two objects seen in image 2 and the difference of the smaller and the larger of the two objects?

5) In BooleanImageSet3.pdf image 1 shows those two objects moved so that one is inside the other. Of the remaining images 2 through 4, which one shows an object that is the difference of the larger and the smaller of the two objects?

6)- Which of these encoding/compression schemes are lossy?

a) Run Length Encoding b) 24 bit RGB encoding c) Table (or Dictionary) based encoding d) JPEG

7) What kind of model building technique does Blender use?

8)-In ImageEncoding.pdf we see an image that measures 3 pixels by 3 pixels. If this image is encoded as a Table- (or Dictionary-) based encoded image, what would be the minimum number of bits needed to reference this color table?

9)- In ImageEncoding.pdf we see an image that measures 3 pixels by 3 pixels. Show the byte string that would be produced if you were using run length encoding,

10)- In ImageEncoding.pdf we see an image that measures 3 pixels by 3 pixels. Show the byte string that would be produced if you were using a table based encoding scheme,

11)- In imageSet4.pdf we see image 7, we find an image that measures 6 by 6. Without image compression, how many bytes would be required to represent this image using 24 bit RGB encoding?

12)- In imageSet4.pdf we find image 7 we find an image that measures 6 by 6 pixels. If using a color table representation of this image, how many bits would have to be used in each entry of the pixel map to reference the color table?

13)- In imageSet4.pdf we find image 7 we find an image that measures 6 by 6 pixels. Which of the following RGB color representations could be the color table entry for the middle grey color seen in this image?

a) 255,0,0 b) 150,150,150 c) 255,0,255 d) 255,255,255

14)- What is it about human vision that JPEG image compression takes advantage of in order to compress a file?

15)- Lighting a 3-D object realistically is complex. Ray tracing is one way to light a scene that produces photo realistic results even when there are multiple objects in the scene. What does ray tracing take into account that allows it to produce these photorealistic results?

16)- A vector is defined by two characteristics. What are these two characteristics?

17)- What is one form of optical mixing that sacrifices resolution at the altar of color accuracy?

18)- Why might you want to scan an image using 48 bit color when 24 bit color is more than sufficient for human vision?

19)- (yes - no) The RGB color model, or tri-stimulus model, is modeled after human color vision which relies on the 3 cones found in the eye. For this reason it can accurately represent all the colors seen by humans.

20)-Which of these three color models can easily be used to model color when mixing visible light and when mixing of paint?

a) CMYK b) HSB c) HSV d) RGB

21)-Using the CMYK model, magenta is what you get when you remove what color(s) from white?

22)- Using the CMYK model, yellow is what you get when you add what color to what color light?

23)-Holding a ball painted with pure green paint you enter a room that is lit with equal amounts of blue and green light. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

24)- Red paint absorbs what color(s) of the spectrum? (“everything but the red” is not the answer I am looking for)

25)- In imageSet4.pdf Image 5 and Image 6 are both wireframe objects made from a sphere and a cylinder, which shows the union of one with the other?

a) Image 5 b) Image 6

Images used in this test can be seen at: http://wiki.ggc.usg.edu/mediawiki/index.php/Fall2008ITEC2110Test2

1)-Using convolution Mask #2, calculate the value of the three pixels marked with an X on convolution Image #2. Show your work on the back of the second page.

Pixel #1= Pixel #2= Pixel #3=

2)-Given the three connected objects seen in Image #1, which of the Images 2, 3 and 4 is the result of the intersection of the sphere and cylinder?

3)- Given the three connected objects seen in Image #1, which of the Images 2, 3 and 4 is the result of the union of the sphere and cylinder?

4)- Given the three connected objects seen in Image #1, Image 2 shows the difference of

a) the sphere and cube b) the cube and sphere c) the sphere and cylinder d) the cylinder and the sphere

5)- While both Image 5 and Image 6 are both wireframe objects made from a sphere and a cylinder, which shows the union of one with the other?

```a) Image 5
b) Image 6

```

6)- Which of these encoding/compression schemes are lossy?

```a) Run Length Encoding
b) JPEG
c) Table (or Dictionary) based encoding
d) 24 bit RGB encoding

```

7) What kind of model building technique does Blender use?

8)-In Image 7 we see an image that measures 6 pixels by 6 pixels. If this image is encoded as a Table- (or Dictionary-) based encoded image, what would be the minimum number of bits needed to reference this color table?

9)- In Image 7 we see an image that measures 6 pixels by 6 pixels. Using a 24 bit RGB encoding what could be the code for the grey pixels?

a) (0,255,0) b) (255,0,0) c) (255,255,255) d) (157,157,157)

10)- Using the technique shown in the slide presentation seen in class, write out the bytes produced when Image 7 is run length encoded.

11)- Without image compression, how many bytes would be required to represent Image 7 using 24 bit RGB encoding?

12)- If you have a color table that is referenced using one byte, how many different colors can it contain?

13)- What is it about human vision that JPEG image compression takes advantage of in order to compress a file?

14)- Lighting a 3-D object realistically is complex. Ray tracing is one way to light a scene that produces photo realistic results even when there are multiple objects in the scene. What does ray tracing take into account allowing it to produce these photorealistic results?

15)- A vector is defined by two characteristics. One is displacement (or length, or weight). The other is what?

16)- If a 10 x 10 pixel square is placed with its upper left hand corner at position 5, 5 What are the absolute coordinates of its bounding box?

17)- What is one form of optical mixing that sacrifices resolution at the altar of color accuracy?

18)- Why might you want to scan an image using 48 bit color when 24 bit color is more than sufficient for human vision?

19)- (yes - no) The RGB color model is based on human vision. For this reason it can accurately represent all the colors seen by humans.

20)-Which of these three color models can easily be used to model color when mixing visible light when mixing of paint?

```a) CMYK
b) HSB
c) HSV
d) RGB

```

21)-Using the CMYK model, magenta is what you get when you remove what color(s) from white?

22)- Using the CMYK model, yellow is what you get when you mix what color(s)?

23)-Holding a ball painted with pure green paint you enter a room that is lit with green light only. What color does the ball appear to be in this room?

24)- Red paint absorbs what color(s) of the spectrum?

25)- What can be done during the rendering process to reduce the amount of time it takes a computer to render a scene?

1) In the above table, what number is in the cell (2,3)?

2) In the vector shown above, what is the (x,y) displacement?

3) In the diagram above a computer screen is shown with an open application window whose upper left hand corner is located at (340,200). In that application window there is a black square. The black square’s upper left hand corner is located at (75,90) relative to the application window. What are the absolute coordinates of the black square?

The diagram above shows a number-8-shaped object (at an angle) that is displayed on a computer screen. Give the two points that define the bounding box that contains that object.

4) ___________ & ______________

5) You apply a chemical compound to an object that makes the object appear to be cyan in color. What color is this chemical compound absorbing?

6) Assume you print most of your documents exclusively in red. Which two colors of ink will be used the most (assume the ink cartridge has cyan, magenta, and yellow, and black)?

7) Of the 4 diagrams above (labeled image 1, 2, 3 and 4) which ones (it could be all 4 of them) could be described as showing an object (labeled “A”) that was first ROTATED around the center of its bounding box and then TRANSLATED to the position labeled “B”?

8) Of the 4 diagrams above (labeled image 1, 2, 3 and 4) which ones (it could be all 4 of them) could be described as showing an object (labeled “A”) that was TRANSLATED to a different position labeled “B”?

9) Of the 4 diagrams above (labeled image 1, 2, 3 and 4) which ones (it could be all 4 of them) could be described as showing an object (labeled “A”) that was REFLECTED across a line that is parallel to the Y axis to the position labeled “B”?

10) Name one piece of software used to edit vector graphics images.

Constructive solid geometry is one form of 3D modeling. The image above shows 5 objects labeled A, B, C, D & E.

11) Which object best represents an object that could be created by forming the INTERSECTION of objects A and B?

12) Which object best represents an object that could be created by forming a UNION of objects A and B?

13) Which object best represents an object that could be created by taking the DIFFERENCE of objects A and B (A – B)?

In this class we discussed the three different forms of 3-D Modeling: Procedural Modeling, Free Form Modeling and Constructive Solid Geometry.

14) Extrusion is a version of one of these forms. Which one?

15) Blender, the software we will be working with, gives the user a selection of basic shapes that can be used as basic building blocks to be assembled and manipulated to make more complex forms. This makes Blender which form of 3-D modeling?

16) If a compression technique is described as "lossy" what does that mean?

17) Lighting a 3-D object realistically is complex. Ray tracing is one way to light a scene that produces photo-realistic results, even when there are multiple objects in the scene. What does ray tracing take into account that allows it to produce these photorealistic results?

The image above measures 3 pixels by 3 pixels and has 2 different colors. The 24-bit RGB encoding of the two colors are: green (0,255,10) and red (255,0,5)

18) Without data compression, how many bytes would be required to represent this image?

19) If that same image were compressed using RLE data compression, write out the string of bytes that this compression would produce.

20) If that same image were represented using a color table, write out the color table and the minimal bit map required to represent this image.

21) What is it about human vision that JPEG image compression takes advantage of in order to compress a file?

22) What is one artifact of compression that an image file can exhibit when using JPEG compression?

23) How many levels of transparency can a 8 bit mask provide?

Convolution is one method that can be used to filter an image. It allows the surrounding pixels to have an effect a target pixel. It accomplishes this task using a convolution mask.

24) The Convolution Mask shown below, when applied to an image, will result in the image being smoothed... reducing the amount of detail. Applying that mask to the Original Image below, what would the value of the pixel that is marked with an X in the New Image be? Show your work to get partial credit!

X

255 63 45 0 190

255 0 72 144 10

195 45 27 126 20

135 205 201 0 90

255 250 202 230 0

1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9

25) The Convolution Mask shown below, when applied to an image, will result in the image being sharpened... making features stand out. Applying that mask to the Original Image below, what would the value of the pixel that is marked with an X in the New Image be? Show your work to get partial credit!

X

255 63 45 0 190

255 0 72 144 10

195 45 27 126 20

135 205 201 0 90

255 250 202 230 0

-1 -1 -1 -1 9 -1 -1 -1 -1

1) In the above table, what number is in the cell (4,2)?

2) In the vector shown above, what is the (x,y) displacement?

3) In the diagram above a computer screen is shown with an open application window. What are the absolute coordinates of the upper left corner of the application window?

4) What are the relative coordinates of the upper left corner of the application window?

The diagram above shows a number-8-shaped object (at an angle) that is displayed on a computer screen. 5 & 6) Give the pair of (x,y) coordinates of the bounding box that contains that object.

7) Which of the diagrams above shows the object (labeled “A”) translated to a different position?

8) Which of the diagrams above shows the object (labeled “A”) reflected across a line that is parallel to the X axis?

9) Which of the diagrams above shows the object (labeled “A”) that was first rotated around the center of its bounding box and then translated?

10) Which of the diagrams above shows the object (labeled “A”) reflected across a line that is parallel to the Y axis?

Constructive solid geometry is one form of 3D modeling. The image above shows 5 objects labeled A, B, C, D & E.

11) Which object best represents an object that was created by forming the intersection of objects A and B?

12) Which object best represents an object that was created by forming a union of objects A and B?

13) Which object best represents an object that was created by forming a difference of objects A and B?

In this class we discussed the three different forms of 3-D Modeling: Procedural Modeling, Free Form Modeling and Constructive Solid Geometry.

14) Extrusion is a version of one of these forms. Which one?

15) Particle systems are a version of one of these forms. Which one?

16) Using an object’s structural hierarchy is one means of coping with complexity. Explain what structural hierarchy is and give an example. (use the back of the page if more room is needed)

17) Lighting a 3-D object realistically is complex. Ray tracing is one way to light a scene that produces photo realistic results even when there are multiple objects in the scene. What does ray tracing take into account allowing it to produce these photorealistic results?

The image above measures 3 pixels by 3 pixels. 18) Without data compression, how many bytes would be required to represent this image using RGB encoding?

19) If that same image were compressed using RLE data compression, write out the string of bytes that this compression would produce.

20) Why would a JPEG compression routine be a poor choice to compress a file that contains scientific data (other than the obvious “it’s not an image”)?

21) What is it about human vision that JPEG image compression takes advantage of in order to compress a file?

22) What is one artifact of compression that an image file can exhibit when using JPEG compression?

Convolution is one method that can be used to create an image filter. It allows the pixels surrounding a pixel have an effect a that pixel. It accomplishes this task using a convolution mask.

23) Fill out the convolution mask below so that only the pixels to the immediate right and to the immediate left ---but not the pixels above or below-- will evenly affect the computation.

24) Can a 1 bit mask provide levels of transparency? Why or why not?

25) Given the Convolution Mask and the Original Image below, what would the new value of the pixel that is marked with an X in the New Image? Show your work to get partial credit!

X

255 63 45 0 190

255 0 72 144 10

195 45 27 126 20

135 205 201 0 90

255 250 202 230 0

1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9 1/9